MTA launch event, 2021-03-20

Dave Nordling, Reaction Research Society


The RRS held a launch event at our Mojave Test Area (MTA) on March 20, 2021, the spring equinox. COVID-19 still remains a threat so everyone had to observe protective protocols. We had a lot of wind that day making launch impractical, but we still were able to get many things done that day including another static fire of a hybrid motor, some system checkouts of the Gas Guzzler and a possible flight of the Solar Cat steam rocket. Osvaldo Tarditti was our pyrotechnic operator in charge. Also joining us that day was fellow Rockets 2nd Class pyrotechnic operator and RRS member, Jim Gross,

MOBILE TRAILER CLEANUP

Mike Gottlieb was a lifetime member of the RRS who passed away over 2 years ago. Years prior, he had acquired a surplus mobile trailer from the former Rockwell International company which was left to reside at the RRS MTA. By permission from his surviving family, this single-axle, climate controlled trailer has been donated to the society. The trailer was opened by the RRS president and the interior inspected by our members present at our March 2021 launch event.

The Rockwell mobile trailer at the RRS MTA
The interior needs a little work but otherwise has a lot of promise.
A spacious interior which could be used as an office space.

For now, the space will be used for light storage until more space can be acquired elsewhere. We used the time to reorganize the contents of our storage trailer. We hope to renovate this new mobile trailer soon and restore its climate control systems which will be convenient in the summer months.

PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEM AT THE MTA

During the cleaning and reorganization of our storage space, we pulled out the public address equipment we had. The 12 VDC battery powered system including loud speaker and microphones worked well in a test from the old blockhouse. The society has talked about having a more distributed system around the main areas of the site. This will require some further equipment purchases, but for now we have a core system to start from. The goal is to make coordination of our events easier to do when we have large groups of people at the MTA again. Further still, we’d like to coordinate launch timing better with our neighboring amateur rocketry group (FAR) to our south.

Keith Yoerg holds up the speaker after a successful test at the old blockhouse

NEW RESTROOM FACILITY

As discussed at the March 2021 monthly meeting, the society is going forward with building a new restroom facility with flushing toilets. This will be a big convenience to our visitors and members alike. The executive council has received bids and plans for the restroom and is working with suppliers to find the best solution given our budget. We are grateful to our generous benefactor and the many people who supported this project with their time and skills. More progress should be made soon as we would like to deploy this facility before the hot summer months arrive this year.

General placement of the proposed new restroom facility at the MTA subject to change and only for illustration..

FIRST FLIGHT OF THE SOLAR CAT FROM THE MTA

Bill Inman and new member Jonathan Wells returned to the MTA for another attempt to launch the solar powered steam rocket, the Solar Cat. He has been making many adjustments and had his first launch near his home in Carson City. Today would be his first launch of his Solar Cat from the MTA.

Bill Inman and his team set up his parabolic solar heating system for today’s sunny day at the MTA

Bill was able to work out minor problems on his trailer mounted systems last month and was fully ready to use his solar heating and tracking system for the hours necessary to reach launching temperatures of the stored water load in his steam rocket.

Bill has had some minor problems with the release system which led to a unintended release of the rocket. No one was injured but it did cost him several useful hours for insolation (heating). His second attempt was only a partial heat load but sufficient to conduct the first (technically second) flight at the MTA. Keith Yoerg managed to capture the short flight in the late afternoon. It’s a bit comical to watch given how short the flight was, but it is a significant milestone in getting this non-traditional form of liquid propulsion to work. We look forward to the advancements, Bill will make for future flights from the MTA.

The Solar Cat gets a clean release from the launcher and clears the rails on 3/20/2021.
The Solar Cat reaches its apogee while still in the frame of the video recording.
The wind pushes the rocket back to the launcher for an ungraceful return then clonking to the ground.

REBUILD AND SYSTEMS CHECK OF THE GAS GUZZLER

Wolfram Blume had made several improvements since his last flight attempt of his two-stage ramjet-solid motor rocket. He was able to correct software issues but also made physical feature changes to his booster. Wind speeds were excessive for much of the day, so he used his time at the MTA for fit checks while on the 1515 rail launcher.

Osvaldo Tarditti and Bill Janczewski observe Wolfram Blume’s operations with his ramjet upper stage in our loading area. No gasoline will be used in the maiden flight which will test the booster and staging systems. The unique design will need some flight testing before committing to a full flight with a fueled upper stage,
Wolfram Blume walks to the launch pad where his Gas Guzzler rocket rests on the pad.

Wolfram was able to conduct his tests making use of the 1515 rail launcher. He left in the afternoon after completing his tests and will return for our next launch event planned for April 10. 2021.

WIRELESS FIRE CONTROL AT THE MTA

Wireless fire control is a remote means of conducting launch without stringing long wire connections. This has been a controversial subject at the RRS with some of our members actively supporting using these systems and others being skeptical about their safety.

Richard Dierking mentioned the Wilson F/X wireless firing system which has been used at the Rocketry Organization of California (ROC) and at the Friends of Amateur Rocketry (FAR) site. Fellow RRS member, Dmitri Timohovich, has used Cobra Firing Systems for pyrotechnic events in the movie business with success. He brought one of these systems to demonstrate at the MTA with test bulbs. The 64-bit encryption in this system vastly reduces the possibility of stray signals causing an unintended firing.

Two 18-channel fire control boxes with the remote in the middle.

A decision was made at the March 2021 meeting to proceed with care by testing one of these wireless fire control systems with only low-power simple model rockets. We also thought meeting with a sales representative or technical advisor from a wireless fire control system manufacturer to explain the safety of these systems to the society would be an excellent idea. Some of our members have had a negative experience with these systems with unintentionally firing. Older wireless fire control systems have had safety issues. Safety in operations with pyrotechnics of any kind is of paramount importance.

wilsonfx.com

cobrafiringsystems.com

The RRS plans to educate themselves further about wireless firing system technology before making any further policy decisions. It is agreed that every pyro-op in charge at the event has the final say about what systems are and are not allowed at the event. The best course of action for any project leader is to discuss all aspects of their test or launch with the pyro-op in charge well in advance of the event at the MTA.

STATIC FIRING OF THE HYBRID MOTOR

The last two firings of the Contrails H222 38mm 16-inch hybrid motor left some questions about how reliable the ignition of the motor is. From both prior flights, it was evident that quick severance of the nylon plastic fill line at the launch command was not happening. Altitude was very low from such a powerful motor according to the curve. Since the last flight damaged the rocket body beyond repair, the next firing was intended to watch the startup sequence in careful detail under static conditions.

The motor survived in tact from the last short flight, The nozzle, spent grain and floating injector were shoved forward from the impact, but all parts were able to be removed, cleaned and reassembled for another firing with the last of my three fuel grains from the kit.

.The Contrails H222 motor reloaded for the third time.

The static test firing was done on the vertical test stand using a simple wooden fixture and 1/2-inch fasteners. The fixture was built quickly and unfortunately not perfectly. We had to fire the motor upside-down which is not representative of how the engine flies.

The vertical test stand holds the hybrid motor ready for firing with the fill line above and clear vent line below.
The 3/16” nylon fill line c0nnects to the floating injector push to connect fitting below the fuel grain and graphite nozzle held down by the snap-ring. The electric match is wrapped along side of and held against the fill line.
Acrylic 1/8” vent line from the top bulkhead push to connect fitting

The igniter used in the 3-20-2021 test used an electric match as was done in the second test. The kit comes with an electric resistor. In the first test, this was insufficient to get ignition and sever the fill line. Second firing used an electric match and a fragment of composite propellant. This achieved ignition but the fill line wasn’t fully severed. The third attempt used a similar load with a bit more composite propellant. The idea was to produce an ignition flame hot and fast enough to soften and sever the pressurized nylon fill line, With the escaping oxidizer liquid, the combustion should be enhanced and help sever the line. In practice, this doesn’t seem to occur quickly enough,

In the hybrid firing that day, the igniter fired and some chuffing from the nozzle was seen but the combustion was not sustained and the oxidizer supply emptied. The motor will be disassembled and inspected to see if all the composite propellant was consumed or if the nitrous oxide dispersed the pack before the full burn could finish.

A thin piece of composite propellant pressed against the electric match head pressed against the nylon fill line.
Floating injector loaded with the igniter and fill line strung through the fuel grain and nozzle.
The hybrid firing box with ruggedized 100-foot cable

The new hybrid rocket firing box with built-in solenoid valve and fire control.

MORE WATER ROCKETS

Dmitri upgraded his water rocket launch system to fire multiple rockets. He had a remote firing box which made it very easy to set up. The winds were too strong for any high altitude flights, but the modest water rockets were plenty of fun.

Water rockets lift off from the new blockhouse.

MODEL ROCKETS

The Yoerg Challenge started as a simple request to those attending our meeting on March 12, 2021 before the launch event: build as many model rockets from as many people as possible and launch them from the multi-wire launcher array that Keith built last month. Dmitri and I both answered the challenge for the event, Although many of our members have built many model rockets since they were kids, some of have not. For those experienced and inexperienced, the Yoerg Challenge was issued. More rockets at each successive event inspires others to build more rockets and more ambitious rocket builds. The RRS is for all forms of reaction propulsion even with a simple model kit.

The Estes Generoc E2X loaded with a C6-7 motor. An inexpensive and simple answer to the Yoerg Challenge,
Dmitri Timohovich built the Firestreak SST for the Yoerg Challenge
A few model rockets fly up and away at our arch.

At the end of the day, Keith and Dmitri launched their model rockets using small “A” sized motors to keep their altitudes low and avoid being carried far downrange with the high winds. I decided not to fly my first model as I left early that day. We hope others will build and bring theirs at our next event.

IN CONCLUSION

Next launch event will be April 10, 2021, with USC and member projects.


MTA launch event, 2021-01-09

by the Reaction Research Society


The Reaction Research Society held its first launch event of the new year on Saturday, January 9, 2021.  Dave Nordling was the pyro-op in charge.  We had a couple rockets prepared and some maintenance work we wanted to continue.  Dmitri Timohovich brought his whole family to the event and we enjoyed grilled burgers there at the Mojave Test Area.  The January winds were light and cool that day.  It was a good day for launch.

Bill Inman enjoys a burger in the George Dosa Building
Everyone relaxing for a short lunch before getting to launch.

Wolfram Blume brought his two-stage rocket, the Gas Guzzler.  His ramjet upper stage was rebuilt from last year’s unfortunate breakage when dropped during loading on the launch rail last year.  3D-printed plastic parts can sometimes be very brittle and care must be taken.

The 1515 launch rail was put into position with some help from Bill Inman and a few others.  Bill Inman is still working on his solar tracker for his latest iteration of the Scalded Cat.  He made the trip from Carson City to the Mojave Test Area to help others with operations and we were very thankful.

Wolfram was able to mount his booster stage on the rails and carefully erect the launcher.  The booster uses a commercial solid motor, an Aerotech “K” motor.  

Wolfram cleans the 1515 rail at the RRS MTA in preparation for mounting the booster
Wolfram’s booster sits on the launch rail

The ramjet for this first flight was loaded with water to simulate the weight, but would not be fired.  The primary goal was to demonstrate the staging and recovery systems powered only by the booster.  Wolfram went back to the loading area to complete the preparations of the upper stage. During a system checkout, the parachute deployment charge fired.  After some careful examination, the source of the problem seemed to be related to errant software commands.  Wolfram aborted his launch attempt and returned with his rocket stages for further examination back in Los Angeles.  Although the charges could be reloaded, he could not be certain that an early parachute deployment would occur and wreck his vehicle during flight.

The Gas Guzzler upper stage ramjet

Dmitri Timohovich and Waldo Stakes worked on completing the welding of the new steel plate on the vertical test stand. This plate on the vertical test stand was damaged during a test failure many years back and late last year was finally cut out and the space grinded to fit a replacement plate.  Unfortunately, the stick welding system would require a different type of welder and a more powerful source to drop a reliable weld.  The welding of the plate will be reattempted at the next event.

With the grinding complete, the plate is fitted and ready to be welded in place

The second launch of the day would be Dave Nordling’s nitrous oxide hybrid rocket.  This 38mm H-sized commercial hybrid motor kit from Contrails Rocketry (H-222 model) had a modified igniter and was mounted in a new 4-inch body made by Larry Hoffing. The prior launch attempt had issues with severing the nylon plastic filling line so the ignition energy was increased with small bit of composite solid propellant ignited by an electric match.

Several minor problems occurred during launch preparations. The nitrous bottle and manifold filling system was working well but the electrical control box failed during tests.  After some discussion, the defective switch box was removed and we were able to fire and get a clean launch

Dave Nordling leans against the old blockhouse with the second build of the hybrid rocket waiting for launch
The hybrid sits on the 1010 launch rail

We repacked the motor before launch and adjusted the vent tube to be more visible. The filling of the rocket went quickly and smoothly, only about 20 seconds before the white stream of liquid could be seen. The filling was stopped and with a short five-count and the rocket was fired. The rocket came off the rails quickly and it seemed that the modified igniter worked. The big problem was the parachute recovery switch wasn’t turned on before launch. This simple oversight would mean a rebuild would be necessary.

The simplest error can lead to sad results.

The rocket was recovered on the north end of the MTA site. It only seemed to reach about 300 feet of altitude. Unfortunately the ballistic landing broke both stages and the internal motor mounts and a complete rebuild is necessary. The motor case was parts were in tact and so it was extracted and will be reloaded,

The hybrid motor seems to arc to the north against wind.

Beckie Timohovich recorded the hybrid flight on her phone, The rocket seemed to immediately curve to the north off the rails opposite of the wind. It seems that the nylon fill line might be still holding fast despite the added solid propellant charge. The 3/16-inch nylon plastic line being strong enough to hold back the 900 psi nitrous pressure, it also poses a challenge to cut cleanly from the ignition charge. A static firing of the motor will be done next to get a better look at how well the fill line severs and measure the thrust curve directly..

The remnant of the fill line from within the hybrid after firing. The end looks smoothly extruded.

After recovering the hybrid rocket and putting away the equipment, we flew a water rocket for Dmitri’s young son. Although very simple, these things are very fun.

Max Timohovich holds the water rocket fired several times at the end of the afternoon.

The event was a partial success and there is more work to be done on our facilities including adding a new toilet facility at our site and welding in the plate on the vertical test stand. The next hybrid rocket launch may be a couple months away, but Bill Inman may have his next design of his solar heated steam rocket ready for launch af fhe MTA in a few weeks. He had his first successful flight in the Nevada desert just before Christmas. He is getting ready for a flight from the RRS MTA.

Bill Inman has his first successful flight of his solar-powered steam rocket on 12/22/2020

Wolfram seemed confident that he too might be ready to try his first launch of the Gas Guzzler at about that same time. If the next launch event occurs before the next monthly meeting on February 12, 2021, the announcement will come through the society email list.

The sun sets at the RRS MTA after a good day.

MTA launch, 2020-07-25

by Dave Nordling, RRS.ORG


On July 25, 2020, the Reaction Research Society held its first launch event at the RRS MTA since the start of the pandemic. Our pyrotechnic operator in charge that day was our society president, Osvaldo Tarditti. I was his backup. We also had Jim Gross come out for the event who has been our pyro-op in charge at many of these events.

We observed social distancing as best as we could and everyone was wearing a mask. Protective equipment is normally required for loading operations and keeping our people spread apart only makes good sense. The heat (107 F) was significant but everyone was largely prepared to endure the exhausting environment. We had a few glitches in the launch process which can happen at any event. It is times like these that make patience and planning very valuable.

We held a short safety briefing before beginning launch operations. I reviewed the natural and man-made hazards at the MTA, underscored the importance of hydration, the buddy system and montioring each other and ourselves for hest exhaustion. We had a lower turnout as this was a private society event and with the heat we sought to run through the micrograin launches in one straight series holding the hybrid rocket flight for last. After the safety briefing, Larry performed a propellant burn demonstrstion then we adjourned to the observation bunker while the pyro-op’s began to ready the micrograin rockets in the rack. John Krell assisted me with the rack loading and arming process.

We had four micrograin rockets and the hybrid rocket for this launch event. There were three alpha rockets with slight differences in their design. John Krell had built three avionics payloads, one for each, to capture the trajectory data (acceleration and barometric pressure) so that an apt comparison could be made. We also had an avionics package and recovery sytem (parachute) built into the beta by Jerremy Hoffing, son of Larry Hoffing. The hybrid rocket would be last in the series,

Bill Inman surveys the upper half of his launch rail made from electrical conduit for the three-finned steam rocket he built.

Bill Inman came to the launch event to both spectate the launch of the micrograin and hybrid rockets and also examine portions of his launch rail unit from his Scalded Cat steam rocket project. He has already begun planning a newer steam rocket design.

Bill Inman captures a launch from his cell phone camera from the MTa observation bunker.

THREE ALPHAS

This segment talks about the three alphas we built and flew to compare two design changes. The three designs were:

  • standard alpha with three-foot propellant tube, plain carbon steel nozzle
  • standard alpha with three-foot propellant tube. ceramic coated nozzle
  • longer alpha with four-foot propellant tube, ceramic coated nozzle

Among these three designs, we were examining the effect of the ceramic coated nozzles which used a proprietary coating process used on automotive engine pistons and exhaust pipe interiors in the racing industry. Specialized Coatings was the company providing the service which we have used before. The coating was proven in a prior alpha flight in 2017, but the nozzle was misplaced and lost after photos were taken at the event. A repeat test was warranted to not only provide photographic evidence but also to cut-up a nozzle to see how the coating survived. It is likely that a ceramic coated nozzle can survive multiple firings before erosion sets in.

Converging part of an alpha nozzle with the ceramic coating
Diverging part of the alpha nozzle with a ceramic coating.

The other variable explored was to change the length of the propellant tube and thus increasing the propellant available. Past projects have explored using longer propellant tubes, but this project would bring flight data for direct comparison. To achieve maximum altitude, a second ceramic coated nozzle was used. Just based on the time of flight observed from the observation bunker, the four foot alpha remained aloft for at least four more seconds. John Krell took some video like a few others did. We may be able to estimate the trajectories if we fail to recover the data from one or all of the alphas.

The four foot alpha rocket payload is being loaded.
The four foot alpha rocket sits in the alpha rails with the beta rocket in its own rail launcher behind it.

BETA WITH RECOVERY SYSTEM

The beta rocket used at the launch event had a recovered nozzle which had some minor erosion. This was sufficient for this flight. The two features were the parachute recovery system and the avionics package to record altitude data.

Beta rocket with a classic Dosa-style fin can.

The beta was the first micrograin rocket ready for flight and thus it was loaded into the box rails built for the beta. This beta design differed from the standard design by having a straight coupler meaning that the aluminum payload tube was the 2.0-inch diameter as the 2.0-inch DOM steel propellant tube. Because of cost, betas are produced in smaller and less frequent batches. This sometimes leads to more variations in the design. With a little more part production, we can achieve greater consistency between betas.

The used beta nozzle sits next to the Dosa-style fin can

The typical aluminum coupler design flares out to a 2.5-inch aluminum payload tube. The standard design better fits the box rail launcher which was made with a 2.5-inch bore. The standard payload tube size would have offered more room for packaging the recovery system. Nonetheless, Jeremy was able to fit everything together and the beta propellant tube was filled and made ready.

The 2.0-inch rocket did lay properly inside of the quad-rail launcher, but the sloppy fit was a little concerning. We had considered using a sabot to fill in the gap, but no practical solution could be made. The solid steel rails would contain the rocket but the concern was whether the avionics switch would get bumped into the off-position. To avoid this, a small block of wood was used to lift the beta high enough to clear the switch near the top of the payload.

The ignition wiring of the beta with the dual igniters is rechecked by Osvaldo. The beta is propped up on a chunk of wood to clear the payload switch. There was a concern that it could accidentally switch off.

The first launch attempts resulted in no firing. After re-checking the cabling and my hookups, no error was found. Second attempt also had the same negative result. To expedite the launch process we proceeded with the alpha launches.

The beta under repair in the old blockhouse.
Two burst disks with two electric matches.

After the alphas flew, we re-tried the beta rocket with a dual-igniter for redundancy, the first electric match was found to be defective. This time after some initial trouble with the battery, on the third attempt we got ignition.

Still capture of the beta rocket at the 7/25/2020 launch event
A massive smoke plume from the beta just a fraction of a second after ignition

SECOND FLIGHT OF THE HYBRID ROCKET

A new rocket body was built to hold the same Contrails H222 nitrous oxide hybrid motor flown earlier. this year. Larry Hoffing did a lot of work building a new rocket body from scratch. It’s boat tail was fitted to accept the 16-inch long, 38mm casing of the Contrails H222 model. Osvaldo built in the parachute recovery system and all parts of the rocket fit well together at the RRS MTA. I changed the location of the vent tube and routed the line to the outside trimming the excess away once the rocket was vertical and captured in the 1010 rail. A lot of this preparation was documented on the RRS Instagram page.

The second fllight of the hybrid rocket sits on the 1010 rail.
The hybrid rocket sits on the 1010 rail positioned for flight

The Contrails H222 motor is a very simple design made for reloading and re-use. The designs are built to common metric standards used in model rocketry. Using the smallest size, 38mm, for a first hybrid project made sense as we would learn the practical things necessary for a successful launch. It also was a size very close to the micrograin rockets that the RRS commonly uses.

The Contrails H222 motor slipped into the rocket body awaiting the retaining ring. The igniter is taped against the nylon filling line going up the nozzle, fuel grain and up to the floating injector fitting.

The Contrails design is very simple and easy to assemble with the right tools and lubricants. The interior of the 16-inch long motor is divided into two parts, one for filling with nitrous oxide liquid supplied under pressure and the other holds the inert plastic reloadable fuel propellant grains and a graphite nozzle. The two volumes are separated by a dual O-ring sealed piston called the floating injector.

Cross-sectional illustration of the Contrails hybrid rocket motor

The motor uses a snap-ring retention method for securing the graphite nozzle plug in the aft and another snap ring is used to keep the vented top plug in place. The internal pressure of the nitrous oxide liquid holds the floating injector down against the fuel grain. The injector consists of a stainless steel Parker push-to-connect plastic tube fitting. The ignier is designed to break the filling line inside of the motor releasing the flow of nitrous oxide and providing ignition nergy to start the combustion of the plastic fuel grain in the presence of newly streaming oxidizer flow. It is a very simple and impressive system. Contrails also sells kits and replacement parts to replace those that wear out.

Top bulkhead fitting with an orificed vent line in the top, snap ring is installed and removed with a special tool.

Last launch attempt successfully demonstrated the motor assembly, motor integration into our first rocket body and loading process. The remote actuation of the nitrous filling line and separate electric ignition circuit required a two-channel firing rig which operated well as expected. The flaw in the first aunch was failing to quickly and cleanly sever the thick-walled nylon fill line.

The floating injector with the 3/16-inch nylon fill line inserted. The Parker brand push-to-connect fittings are used for this application.

The nitrous bottle was recharged with liquid and secured to an I-beam. The valve manifold was attached and after a quick tightening was free of leaks. We secured the electrical and fluid connections to the rocket and ran our control lines back to the old blockhouse with all of our observers in the safety of the observation bunker. Osvaldo and I conducted all operations with care. Then the first problem struck.

Nitrous bottle with the filling manifold

We couldn’t get the fill solenoid to open. This was first thought to be the battery. In past summer events the heat can degrade the battery. We had several no-fire conditions which led us to suspect the battery health. For the beta, the fault was a broken lead on the electric match. Running a voltmeter showed a little weakness of the battery but 12-volts was showing on the needle. We moved one of the cars closer to the blockhouse to use its battery but the solenoid still wouldn’t open. Given, the late hour in the peak of the afternoon, we scrubbed the launch attempt and safed and disconnected the fluid and electrical system.

Nitrous oxide bottle courtesy of Nitrous Supply Inc. in Huntington Beach. The fill-drain system with remote operated solenoid valve.

The bottle pressure was reading very high that day and although the vessel and plumbing is amply rated for the 1400 psi reading on the gauge. By weight, the bottle wasn’t overfilled, but the heat of the day certainly brought the pressure up. The solenoid valve was bought as part of an assembly sold by a different supplier. With no labelling or marking on the solenoid, there is nothing to identify the manufacturer or model number. A couple emails were sent to the seller but no information on the valve make and model has been given. The internal design and operating limitations of this 12 VDC normally closed solenoid valva is unknown but it is possible that the high pressure against the seat was too much for the solenoid to overcome. Chilling the bottle or simply venting the bottle to lower the pressure might have helped. More tests of the solenoid valve will be done to verify its functions and perhaps some careful disaasembly of the valve may reveal markings to identify it. We are also considering building our own simple solenoid valve fill and drain assembly once the right parts can be specified.

IN CLOSING

It was a long day but very worthwhile. We hope to have another launch event soon. The results of the day’s events will be discussed at the August 14, 2020, monthly meeting which will be held by teleconference.

Lovking up the gate at the end of the day.