MTA Launch Event, 2021-12-17

by Dave Nordling, RRS.ORG


The Reaction Research Society held its last launch event of the year 2021 at the Mojave Test Area on Friday, December 17th. I was the pyrotechnic operator in charge. This was my first launch event as a Class 1 pyrotechnic operator although none of the activities this day involved a liquid rocket. We had four launches planned for that day. Two from Keith Yoerg, one from Wolfram Blume and one from Dimitri Timohovich. RRS members Wilbur Owens, Xavier Marshall and Bill Inman came to be spectators at this launch event.

Bill Inman at the RRS MTA on 12-17-2021

IMPROVEMENTS TO THE 1515 RAIL LAUNCHER

The first flight of the Hawk in late November revealed a concern about the stability of the 1515 rail launcher with heavier rockets. Although quite heavy in its steel rectangular tube construction, Dimitri and Keith used cinder blocks and sandbags to weigh down the legs of the base. This resulted in damage to several of the sandbags from the exhaust of the M-sized motor from the initial flight.

Flat steel plate with welded bolt
Flat steel plate added to the 1515 launch rail base for greater anchorage

A flat steel plate with a threaded rod welded to the center was connected to the bottom of the 1515 rail launcher to allow for more weight to the base and allow for more cinder blocks to be added for even more stability. New adjustable feet were added to the existing four threaded holes at the far points of the legs. Eyebolts were also bought to screw into the 3/4-10 holes in the pad to strap the base down if necessary.

The 1515 rail launcher with its new anchor plate held down by cinder blocks.

SECOND FLIGHT OF THE HAWK

The December 17th launch event was primarily for the second flight of Keith Yoerg’s massive 14-foot long, 8-inch diameter Jumbo Dark Star rocket made by Wildman Rocketry with a 98mm Cesaroni N2600 Skidmark motor. The launch was held on Friday to coincide with the anniversary of the Wright Brothers first flight..

The payload tube of the Hawk being prepared for launch on 12/17/2021.

The payload was something very special to the Yoerg family and to American aviation history. The payload was a few squares of cotton fabric from the right wing of the original Wright Flyer aircraft that made aviation history. This cloth was the actual material that flew in 1903.

An authenticated piece of American aviation history flies on the Hawk from the RRS MTA.

A similar piece of the cotton fabric used in the Wright Flyer was sent with the Mars Ingenuity helicopter aboard the Mars 2020 mission being part of the first aircraft flown on a foreign world.

Mars Ingenuity helicopter at Jezero Crater on the surface of the Red Planet in April 2021

It was amazing to fly a similar piece of history at our humble launch site for our members to enjoy on the anniversary of manned flight.

After securing the payload and verifying the recovery systems were in proper working order, the Hawk was taken to the launch pad and erected for flight.

The Hawk slid into the 1515 extrusion rail by its rail buttons.
Manually erecting the Hawk took several people to carefully raise and push the stopping pin once the rail was near vertical.
Keith checking out the wireless data system.
Dimitri connects the igniter circuit into the society’s new Cobra wireless firing system
Keith Yoerg and Xavier Marshall of the RRS pose with the Hawk before its second flight on the Wright Brothers anniversary.

Before the countdown, Keith gave a very moving speech with his mother, Janette Davis, present in the observation bunker.

118 years ago today, on the sandy windswept dunes of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, my Great-Great Granduncles Orville and Wilbur Wright achieved the first powered, heavier-than-air flight of a manned aircraft. A few small pieces of fabric from that historic airplane are ready to take flight again today, from the sands of the Mojave Desert, aboard ”The Hawk” an 8-inch diameter 14-foot fall rocket Honoring Aviation, the Wrights, and Kinetics. In 1903, this fabric reached a max altitude of 10 feet at a max speed of 10 feet per second. Today, that same fabric is expected to reach an altitude of over 7,000 feet with a max speed of 791 feet per second (or Mach 0.7).

We’re now ready to start the countdown. The sky is clear, the road is clear.

Flight 2 of “The Hawk” is launching in 5… 4… 3… 2… 1…

Rail-mounted camera caught a few frames before the N-motor destroyed the lens.

The second flight of the Hawk was close to predictions reaching over 7,800 feet in altitude and 742 feet per second. The Hawk with its drogue and main parachutes working properly was fully recovered. Keith got telemetry data and provided screenshots of the results below.

Telemetry data from the second flight of the Hawk on 12-17-2021

Beckie Timohovich was a big help in the recovery efforts and bringing back the hardware to the launch site. She also makes really good Alaskan caribou chili which we all got to enjoy at lunch in the Dosa Building.

The ratcheting extraction tool for removing alphas from the ground.
The Hawk returned safely to the ground with the historical payload intact. Wireless and onboard data was recorded and video footage from the ground and on the vehicle was recorded.

The 1515 rail launcher with its heavier base worked well and did not shift although the straps were singed by the hot exhaust and seemed to be superfluous. The parachute system on the Hawk deployed well and brought the vehicle down in tact. Most importantly, the family heirloom flown as a payload was returned to safekeeping.

The 1515 rail after launching the Hawk. Unfazed and ready for another pounding from Wolfram’s K-sized booster motor

Keith is considering his next flight of the Hawk. One idea is to fly an even larger motor if an O-sized motor will fit in the existing 98mm mount. The goal being to go faster and break the speed of sound and fly even higher. Keith was also pondering adding a second stage to the Hawk. We hope to learn his next plan in the new year as we hope to have another launch event in January 2022.

TWO MICROGRAIN ALPHA ROCKETS

We flew two alpha micrograin rockets. One by Keith Yoerg, one by Dimitri Timohovich. Each had a payload built by John Krell. These were the first zinc-sulfur rockets to be loaded and flown by Keith and Dimitri which although both them have been active members of the society for years, this experience served to initiate them into the RRS.

Dimitri was first to load his blue nose-to-red finned rocket and fire it while Wolfram Blume completed his assembly and preparations for the second flight of the Gas Guzzler two-stage rocket with a water ballasted ramjet upper stage. Keith Yoerg’s alpha with the bright pink nosecone and fins was the second of two alpha flights, Like with the Hawk before it, the RRS used our Cobra wireless firing system with the alpha rockets.

Dimitri Timohovich loads the powdered micrograin into the propellant tube using gentle vibration to release any air pockets.
Keith finished with the loading of powdered propellant, installs the nozzle into his alpha.

https://www.cobrafiringsystems.com

Keith edited the footage of both alpha flights into one compilation on YouTube. See link below:

John Krell’s Adalogger design custom built for the tight confines and high acceleration of Keith’s RRS standard alpha.
Keith prepares to load his alpha into the box rails.
Still capture of Keith’s alpha streaking nearly straight up in nearly calm winds that day.
Keith Yoerg’s first alpha rocket.

A few days after the MTA launch event, John reported a summary of the results from the two different instrumentation payloads. His emails are paraphrased below.


On 12/17/2021, two Alpha rockets were launched. Both were instrumented with high speed flight computers. Dmitri’s Alpha (blue nosecone) carried an original Alpha Datalogger on it’s third flight and Keith’s Alpha (pink nosecone) carried a newer Adalogger design on it’s second flight.

John Krell had two data logger designs. the original data logger design was flown on Dimitri’s alpha.

The bad news first. The Adalogger SD card socket broke during its first launch. I did not catch this issue prior to this launch. The SD card fell out of its socket during the initial acceleration and no flight data was recorded from Keith’s alpha, The next design update will include a nylon post to prevent SD card ejection. Keith’s Alpha also incorporated a semi-soft shock absorption mounting. It didn’t work as well as planned, but it does show potential with two modifications. Damage to the Adalogger system was minimal and repairable. 

9-volt battery mounted in the aluminum nosecone of Dimitri’s RRS alpha.

Dmitri’s Alpha produced significant new data during the burn for a micrograin rocket. The thrust was relatively smooth and constant compared to the previous three Alpha launches that carried flight computers and returned data. Absent were the large acceleration bursts during the burn. (See attached graph)

Acceleration plot of Dimitri’s alpha flight.

Also recorded was the impact. The impact duration was measured at 16 milliseconds. This is the shortest impact duration recorded for an Alpha. A prior impact duration of 18 milliseconds produced a deceleration of 716 G’s. This impact deceleration should exceed that value.

Further analysis of the data is required to determine a value. A picture of Dmitri’s rocket in the ground prior to extraction will be helpful.   (Photo was later provided.)    

Motor burn duration           0.408 seconds

Maximum Acceleration       103.95 G’s at 0.304 seconds

Maximum Velocity               676 ft/sec, Mach 0.6 based on integrated accelerometer readings  

Altitude at Burnout              ~138 ft    

Maximum Altitude                4,307 ft AGL by barometric readings

Terminal Velocity                  463 ft/sec, Mach 0.411  based on barometric readings

My video records of Keith’s Alpha show a shorter burn duration equating to a higher acceleration and velocity. The altitude should also be higher with the shorter down range distance. 

Dimitri’s alpha with its red paint at the aft body coming off from the intense heat of the micrograin burn. Dimitri’s rocket was found significantly further downrange than Keith’s but on the same heading

The still pictures at the end furnished the information necessary to estimate the deceleration at impact. Keith’s alpha’s penetration depth of approximately 3 feet 10 inches correlates to a deceleration rate of 680 to 720 G’s in a span of 18 to 20 milliseconds. Dimitri’s Alpha penetrated approximately 3 ft 8 inches into the ground in 16 milliseconds equating to ~900 G deceleration rate. Wow!!! 


The main objective was to give all of our active members experience with micrograin rocketry. Although rarely practiced outside of the society, it is considered to be something of a rite of passage and also serves as valid experience with the unlimited category of rocketry. This event gave Dimitri and Keith this experience which will help them as they advance as pyrotechnic operators.


SECOND FLIGHT OF THE GAS GUZZLER RAMJET

Wolfram Blume brought his second build of the Gas Guzzler rocket to the MTA for a December test flight. The same booster section with an Aerotech K-motor was flown. The ramjet was rebuilt and was flying a 3/4 load of water in the gasoline tank to have a representative payload weight including any possible sloshing that might occur.

Wilbur Owens discusses the ramjet operation with Wolfram Blume. This forward view is without the forward cowl. In the background is a graduated cylinder for precisely metering the fuel load into the ramjet.
The forward end of the ramjet with its annular cowl and forward spike as it nears final assembly.
The Gas Guzzler booster stage design remained the same for this second flight from the MTA.
Wolfram holds the lower half of his ramjet ready for final assembly and stacking of the two stages.
Wolfram carefully walked the ramjet upper stage to mate with the booster stage already on the launch rail.
Wolfram Blume and John Krell examine the Gas Guzzler on the 1515 launch rail before its second flight.
The Gas Guzzler sits side-saddled in the 1515 rail launcher to allow proper clearance of the fins.
The Gas Guzzler lept straight and clean from the 1515 rails in its booster flight.

From the ground, it was clear that the booster flew straight and stage separation had taken place. The booster parachute ripped loose. The ramjet came down only under its drogue chute and the hard landing damaged the upper stage enough to warrant a complete rebuild.

Clean stage separation was evident, but the booster parachute ripped loose.

Wolfram spent several days after the launch event looking at the remains of Gas Guzzler. A few things are known so far:

The addition of 1.14 kilograms of ballast water did not cause any problems. The two stages – both separately and together – were still stable in flight. Also the stage separation worked.

After separation, the booster came apart at apogee into two pieces. It is an easy fix as a bulkhead blew out and only needs to be better reinforced against the loads. A recent addition of a GPS tracker to the second flight of the booster worked.

The ramjet lost electrical power at apogee. The reason was found and will be repaired.  The power failure meant that the GPS tracking stopped at apogee which is a serious problem. Wolfram is considering adding a backup GPS tracker to the ramjet with a separate power supply.

Based on telemetry, the deceleration seen after stage separation gave the drag coefficient (Cd) on the ramjet at 0.25. The accuracy of this calculation is about 10% based on the acceleration readings which is fairly good all things considered.

drag force = Cd * velocity-squared * air-density

The thrust also scales with the square of velocity and that gives the minimum velocity when thrust minus drag exceeds weight to be about 656 feet per second (200 m/sec).  This is the minimum velocity which the booster must supply at burnout.

For this flight using the K-motor in the booster, with the water ballast, the maximum velocity was 574 feet per second (175 m/sec). The ramjet reached an apogee of 3,800 feet AGL (above ground level). The booster pushing the ramjet reached an apogee of 3,100 feet AGL. Maximum acceleration under boost phase was 6 G’s. The ramjet was flown without fuel, only an equivalent weight of water instead of gasoline.

The next build of the Gas Guzzler will have a larger booster which will hold an L-sized motor.

In the 12-17-2021 flight, the ramjet’s drogue parachute deployed correctly but the main chute did not. This seems to have been caused by the drogue chute being too small. Rockets with dual-deployment parachute recovery systems typically split the rocket in two places with the drogue ejecting forward and the main ejecting backwards. It is a good, reliable system but it cannot be used in the Gas Guzzler design because you cannot split the ramjet in the middle. Both of the parachutes must deploy from the front. The recovery system design requires the drogue to pull the main out of the ramjet at 1,000 feet.  Wolfram developed this system on prior rocket with launches at ROC in Lucerne Valley and it has worked the last three launches. Wolfram is confident that it will work in the next flight of the ramjet, too.

Damaged fragments of the ramjet recovered downrange after the second launch of the Gas Guzzler.

The air flow measured inside the ramjet during the second flight on 12-17-2021 was within the range of an air blower system at Wolfram’s workshop that had considered using to static fire the ramjet with an operational burner. However, he is not comfortable with trying the main burner at his workshop, but testing the flameholder and its igniter is OK. Thus, a static test of a fueled ramjet coupled with an air blower system is being considered.

Going forward, once the ramjet is rebuilt, Wolfram would like to verify the performance of the igniter and flameholder over the full range of the air blower’s speeds in a static fire setup at the MTA. In this testing, he also wants to work on how quickly the flameholder ignites to avoid losing a lot of forward speed after stage separation.

Wolfram will rebuild the ramjet as quickly as possible and could be ready for another launch in February 2022. He would like to do another booster-only flight from the MTA to verify the fixes on that stage. If successful, then the next launch will try a flight with a short ramjet burn using roughly 5 seconds of gasoline fuel.

The society will peer-review the work done so far and find the best way to proceed. Wolfram is still evaluating the data and may have an update to this firing report later.

TESTING OF A GERB AS A LIQUID ROCKET ENGINE IGNITER

Dimitri and I have overseen a few recent liquid rocket engine static fires at the RRS MTA. Although there have not been any ignition problems, we had discussed different approaches to getting a safe and reliable start.

Liquid rocket engines sometimes have problems with achieving reliable ignition. Failure to ignite the cold mixture of propellants due to lack of sufficient energy or outright failure to light can create a serious fire or explosion hazard. One of the simplest approaches is to use a sufficiently energetic pyrotechnic device mounted in the engine throat from the aft side. Visible indication of the igniter firing should be confirmed prior to opening the propellant valves and releasing the stored pressurant gas.

There are a few different pyrotechnic devices that are good for this task such as lances and gerbs. Both require a special license to get. Dimitri, who has such a license and happened to have a couple gerbs that we could try. Lances have been used in prior liquid rocket engine firings and vehicle launches with success.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerb_(pyrotechnic)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyrotechnics

At this event, we decided to test a gerb to see if it would be appropriate to try in lighting a liquid rocket engine. We secured one to the top of the alpha box rail and fired it to examine the plume,

A gerb is a pyrotechnic device used in firework displays.
Simple schematic of a liquid bipropellant rocket engine with an external igniter system
The gerb was fired to determine if it would make a suitable igniter for a liquid rocket engine.

Our impression of the gerb operation was favorable in terms of its 20-second firing duration, but it seemed that a smaller gerb size might be sufficient. Smaller gerb sizes are available. There is also the long-term consideration of having these available for liquid rocket testing which would require a storage magazine. Other less complicated means should be explored.

IN CLOSING

Several of the attendees stayed behind to clean up the MTA and relax in the Dosa Building. This was the last launch event for our outgoing president, Osvaldo Tarditti, who has faithfully served the society for many years with his time, skills and leadership. We enjoyed the sunset on a mild and nearly calm winded day. It was a fine end to a great day at the MTA and what was our last event of 2021.


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August 2020 virtual meeting

By Dave Nordling, Reaction Research Society


In the absence of our secretary, I took a few notes from the meeting. This is what I recorded. Contact the RRS secretary for updates and corrections.

The Reaction Research Society held its monthly meeting by teleconference on August 14, 2020. Our monthly meetings are always held on the 2nd Friday of every month. We’ve had a lot of success with holding our meetings remotely and we will likely continue for the next coming months to continue our commitment to safety in light of the pandemic. Our membership is in regular contact with our community which has allowed us to promote and hold events including our first launch at the Mojave Test Area (MTA) on July 25, 2020. You can read the details in the firing report posted on this website.

Our members are doing well and thus far no one has reported being infected with COVID-19 which we hope continues to be the case. Frank is in regular contact with the Los Angeles Police Department’s (LAPD) Community Safety Partnership (CSP) but under current circumstances, the next school event may not be until next year. Options are being considered on how to continue our educational programs while maintaining social distancing.

The August 2020 RRS meeting held by teleconference.

REVIEW OF THE 7/25/2020 LAUNCH EVENT OPERATIONS

The first topic was the recent launch event we held on July 25th at the Mojave Test Area for the first time since the start of the pandemic. We had some difficulties in operating under the summer heat (106 Fahenheit at the peak) but this is nothing unusual for this time of year. Many of us were well prepared for the hot sun with our hats, sunscreen and iced beverages and chilled water. We also did a good job of watching out for each other. Still, the heat was responsible for leaving all but one of the micrograin rockets downrange. It also underscores the importance good planning, coordination and putting safety over all other considerations. We had several mis-fires which we were able to resolve, but maintaining discipline during the event proved to be a larger challenge. The launch protocols will be explained more thoroughly in the next safety briefing. The meeting highlighted that every member and pyro-op attending the event holds a joint responsibilty for the safety of all and it starts with self-discipline and patience by all.

Getting the beta rocket ready in the launcher on 7/25/2020 and setting the camera

We also discussed proper protocols such as announcing the pyro-op in charge well before the event and the necessity of providing detailed information about the intended operations to the pyro-op in charge in advance. Most of the planned projects were well understood as they were micrograin rockets and the previous hybrid rocket attempted at the last launch event.

DATA REVIEW OF THE STANDARD ALPHA FLIGHT OF 7/25/2020

The only micrograin rocket to be recovered from the launch event of 7/25/2020 was the standard alpha with plain steel nozzle. John Krell has been developing progressively better and more powerful avionics payloads designed to fit the narrow confines of the RRS standard alpha payload tube. John was able to spot and recover one of his payloads and process the flight data captured that day. The avionics payload was intact after being extracted from the desert floor including the solid-state data chip. John was able to recover the data and accurately reveal the huge acceleration of the RRS standard alpha with unprecedented accuracy. A peak acceleration of 114 G’s was recorded at roughly 0.3 seconds just before tail-off and burn-out at 0.4 seconds from launch. I was able to screen capture his plot below.

John Krell’s presentation of the data from the one recovered alpha ( to date).

The second plot shows the velocity derived from the accelerometer readings in the half-second which captures burnout at 0.4 seconds. Burnout velocity was measured at 670 feet/second which is consistent with prior data and trajectory predictions. The alpha is subsonic but travels at substantial speed from the swift acceleration. Given the high air temperature that day, 106 Fahrenheit, the speed of sound was 1165 ft/sec. The altitude of burnout was determined to be 130 feet which is consistent with prior flight data and high speed video footage.

Trajectory plot of the standard alpha flight from 7/25/2020

The third plot was made for the whole flight of standard alpha from the 7/25/2020 event from launch to impact at 35 seconds. Given the roets were impacting 2000 to 3000 feet downrange, the sound delay matches with the time to impact witnessed in the observation bunker. The maximum altitude was just over 4,400 feet based on the barometric pressure measurements using the 1976 standard atmosphere model. Base atmospheric pressure reading at the start of the flight shows the elevation of alpha launch rail platform is 2,048 feet.

Trajectory of the standard alpha flown on 7/25/2020

John Krell has really accomplished something with these custom avionics packages. He has been mentoring some of our other RRS members and the society encourages other members to build and fly their own payloads to spread the knowledge.

John Krell and Bill Behenna discuss avionics payloads

The society hopes to recover the other two alphas and the beta for further data analysis. Both of the unrecovered alphas from this last launch event had ceramic coated nozzles which should not erode. This should result in a more ideal performance as the throat area will not open up. The actual effect of this design improvement can best be assessed with recorded flight data. Also, we hope to compare the trajectory of the four-foot propellant tube with the standard length. Lastly. if the beta is recovered with recorded flight data, we may be able to assess its performance in unprecedented detail. The society hopes to report this flight data soon.

IMPROVEMENTS TO THE NITROUS OXIDE FILL/DRAIN MANIFOLD

The failure to launch the second build of the hybrid rocket was discussed at the August 2020 meeting. After discussing the launch procedures and corrective actions followed during the attempt to launch the nitrous oxide hybrid at the MTA with Osvaldo (the Level 1 pyro-op in charge) and racing experts at Nitrous Supply Inc., Huntington Beach, California, the cause of the fill valve’s failure to open became clear.

nitroussupply.com

In the racing industry, these normally-closed direct-acting solenoid valves are commonly used to open the flow of stored nitrous oxide bottles against the full supply pressure in the storage bottle. These are called “purge solenoid valves” among racers because it is this solenoid valve that opens the flow of nitrous oxide which displaces or purges out the air in the engine lines during the race. Buying these 12-volt DC high pressure solenoid valves from racing suppliers is much cheaper given they are made in greater numbers for the racing industry. (~$120 each versus $400+ each from reputable solenoid valve manufacturers).

In researching common designs for normally closed (NC) solenoid valves, the excessive heat of that day simply created too much inlet pressure against the internal valve seat for the electromagnetic solenoid coil to overcome and open the flow path. 1000 psig is likely the limit to reliably open these valves according to advice given by Nitrous Supply Inc. who has decades of practical experience at racing tracks around the country using purge solenoid valves for an application nearly identical to the needs of hybrid rocketry fill and drain operations. The ambient temperature at the MTA on launch day was creating a bottle temperature of 1400 psig accordling to the bottle pressure gauge and the separate pressure gauge in the manifold when the bottle was opened. This is well above the 900 psi recommended pressure range seen by marking on the gauge. The bottle, valve body and fittings are rated for these higher pressures, but opening mechanism of the solenoid valve was not.

A color-coded example of direct-acting normally closed solenoid valve is below. Blue shows the high pressure fluid path which is holding the seat down along with some assistance from an internal spring only for low inlet pressure conditions. With current applied to the electromagnetic solenoid (Orange), it pulls up on the moving armature (in red) which then allows the fluid to slip past the seal and through the flow control orifice when commanded open. Only a slight amount of movement is necessary to lift open the valve. However, if the fluid inlet pressure is too great, the solenoid can not provide enough force to lift and open the seal, therefore the valve stays shut.

Example of a direct-acting normally closed (NC) solenoid valve courtesy of M & M International (UK) Limited with color added to distinguish key parts.

To understand the relationship between pressure and temperature of the nitrous oxide you must consult the vapor pressure curve for nitrous oxide. This set of data points spans between the triple point and critical point of any pure fluid. NIST provides accurate data to generate such a curve.

webbook.nist.gov

nitrous oxide (N2O) liquid state properties, HTML5 table output from Web-book NIST.gov website
Nitrous oxide (N2O) vapor phase properties, HTML5 table output from Web-book NIST.gov website

The critical point of any pure fluid is where the distinction between gas and liquid phases disappears. This is not necessarily hazardous but it does mark a fundamental change in fluid behavior. The critical point of nitrous oxide (N2O) is 1053.3 psia and 97.6 degrees Fahrenheit according to Air Products company literature. This means the nitrous oxide conditions in the bottle at the launch (1400 psig as read on the gauges with an fluid temperature of 106 Fahrenheit or more) was well in the supercritical range, but again, this is only hazardous if the pressure vessels and plumbing connections aren’t able to safely contain the pressure. If the solenoid valve could have been opened, the pressure drop would have returned the supercritical fluid back to normal conitions and would flow dense liquid into the rocket when the fluid naturally chills down from the expansion.

Both the bottle pressure gauge and the manifold pressure gauge read excessively high on that hot summer day.

Keeping the bottle pressure below 1000 psia means controlling the external temperature of the bottle to a lower temperature. Below is a tabulation of state points along the vapor pressure curve for nitrous oxide (N2O) for common ambient temperatures. You can see that small shifts in ambient temperature can greatly affect the vapor pressure of the pressurized liquid. Keeping nitrous oxide under pressure is the key to retaining its denser liquid state. As long as the tank pressure is above the vapor pressure at that fluid temperature, you will have a liquid phase in the tank. If the pressure on the fluid drops below the vapor pressure, the liquid will begin to boil away.

  • 30 F, 440.05 psia
  • 40 F, 506.63 psia
  • 50 F, 580.33 psia
  • 60 F, 661.71 psia
  • 70 F, 751.46 psia; liquid density 48.21 lbm/ft3, vapor density 0.1145 lbm/ft3
  • 80 F, 850.46 psia
  • 90 F, 960.09 psia
  • 97.6 F, 1053.3 psia; density 28.22 lbm/ft3, CRITICAL POINT
  • Molecular weight = 44.01 lbm/lb-mol
Vapor curve for nitrous oxide over ambient temperature ranges

At first, it was thought that there wasn’t sufficient current from the lawnmower lead-acid battery we use. The summer heat can cause batteries to fail, but even after switching to a car battery, the failure to open was the same. Having a 12-volt solenoid requires greater current to actuate the solenoid valve, but it is a common standard for automotive grade parts which can be less expensive yet reliable. A current draw of 15 Amps over the long cable runs of a few hundred feet can be taxing to the firing circuit battery. This was not the cause of the problem, but it is a regular concern making sure sufficient voltage and current is available to both ignition and valve control.

To exclude outright failure of the solenoid valve, Osvaldo brought the unit home, allowed it to cool to room temperature then dry-cycled the valve from a battery to see if it still actuated. This simple test was successful and the filling valve in our nitrous oxide manifold continues to operate. At the next launch attempt, we will be prepared to chill the nitrous oxide supply bottle with an ice bath if necessary as was originally suggested at the prior launch event. Keeping the bottle pressure in an appropriate pressure range for fill operations is dependent on controlling the fluid temperature (60 to 90 F) under extreme heat or cold environments.

In researching purge solenoid valves, a second 12 VDC normally-closed valve was found and purchased. Nitrous Supply Inc., was out of purge solenoid valves but offered many alternative suppliers in the Los Angeles area. After some searching, I selected a high flow purge solenoid valve sold by Motorcycle Performance Specialties (MPS) Racing in Casselbury, Florida, for the purge solenoid valve used for venting our nitrous oxide manifold. The control panel is already equipped with the second command channel to open the vent from the blockhouse should it be necessary in launch operations. A schematic illustration is provided in this article.

mpsracing.com

Normally-closed 12 VDC purge solenoid valve from MPS Racing in Florida used for nitrous oxide applications including car and motorcycle racing.

The previous drain solenoid valve equipped with the nitrous manifold I bought was not deisgned for the full bottle pressure in the manifold so it quickly failed during initial checkouts. A manual valve was used in its place to carefully bleed out the remaining pressure in the line after the main bottle valve was tightly closed. This second solenoid valve will be used for draining the nitrous in the event of a launch scrub. Although the Contrails hybrid motor already has a small orifice and vent tube at the head end of the nitrous tank to provide slow release of pressure buildup, it is better to have a remote option to quickly depressurize the vehicle if the need arises.

Fill, drain and firing circuit for a Contrails hybrid rocket motor

With some re-plumbing of the nitrous oxide manifold to include the new vent solenoid, a soap-bubble leak check would be needed to prove the system before use. Given the significant overhanging weight of two solenoid valves, it may be wise to mount both valves on a separate plate structure to avoid excessive bending loads on the bottle connection. Design changes like this will be considered in preparation for the next launch event.

PYROTECHNIC OPERATOR TRAINING SESSION BY FRIENDS OF AMATEUR ROCKETRY

Mark Holthaus of the Friends of Amateur Rocketry (FAR) organization is offering an online training session for those interested in becoming licensed pyrotechnic operators in the state of California. The event requires registration on the FAR website and a fee paid to FAR ($10) to attend this two-hour introduction to the licensing and application process to be held on August 26th.

Friends of Amateur Rocketry website for indicating interest in pyro-op classes

Amateur rocketry in California is controlled by the same laws governing fireworks which require licensing by a state exam. The application forms and guidelines are available through the Office of the State Fire Marshal in the state of California (CALFIRE).

https://osfm.fire.ca.gov/divisions/fire-engineering-and-investigations/fireworks/

This training course for pyro-op applicants is another example of FAR and the RRS partnering to help the cause of amateur rocketry. The RRS, FAR and Rocketry Organization of California (ROC) last year met to create a joint set of recommendations to help CALFIRE improve the definitions used to govern amateur rocketry when CALFIRE they were seeking input from rocketry organizations. It is to the mutual benefit of the whole rocketry community and the public that there be more licensed pyro-op’s in amateur rocketry to both increase awareness of state laws and improve the culture of safety in our hobby and professions.

This FAR training course only serves to provide applicants with basic guidance on how to begin the application process and prepare to take the examination. Members of FAR, the RRS, ROC and any other amateur or model rocketry organization are welcome to apply. Several members of the RRS have already applied as the society continues its campaign to grow our ranks of licensed pyro-op’s at all three levels.

Completion of this training course does not substitute for any part of the pyro-op application process set by CALFIRE. As each applicant is required to pay their own fees including fingerprinting, they must also provide five letters of recommendation from licensed pyro-ops at or above the level of license being sought. After this class, each applicant must formally request these letters from state licensed pyro-ops in writing. For a licensed pyro-op to offer a letter of recommendation to an applicant, they must be willing to endorse their skills, knowledge and character to the state of California based on their personal experience with that individual. This is done through active participation at launch events through rocketry organizations having licensed pyro-ops leading their operations. Apprenticing, studying and attentiveness are all ways that a pyro-op can get to know an applicant personally and thus build confidence that the applicant is ready to have the responsibility of being licensed in rocketry. A letter of recommendation is given solely at the discretion of the licensed pyro-op which means their standards and expectations may vary significantly from others. It is important to establish a working relationship with both the society and the specific pyrotechnic operator over several projects to demonstrate skills and learn best practices through active participation.

As the RRS has more licensed pyro-ops than FAR at this time, this training course will be successful if both organizations support it. Some of the RRS pyro-ops have already offered their support as this means more people will need to become active with the RRS and conduct their projects at the MTA.

ROCKET LABORATORY AT THE COMPTON AIRPORT

Keith Yoerg announced that there is a tentative plan to create a rocket laboratory in a hangar at the Compton Airport, Although, the hangar will be used from time to time to store or service light aircraft, there is a great deal of working space which will help the RRS continue their liquid rocket project already underway. Several members of the RRS are also active with civil aviation and are members of Chapter 96 of the Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA 96). The EAA has generously supported the RRS over the last two years and we hope to continue and expand this partnership.

NEXT EVENT AT THE MOJAVE TEST AREA

The RRS has been planning the next event at the Mojave Test Area which will be dedicated to repairing some of our facilities including the adjustable rail launcher damaged in solid rocket launch explosion in August 2019. The consensus at the meeting was that we should not to return to the MTA for a formal launch event until the seasonal temperatures decrease from the excruciating desert summer. October 3rd was selected for this work event, Our hope is the weather will be cooler and we can accomplish more on that day. We may also take some time to search for more rockets planted downrange from past launch events.

The RRS may also conduct a few static firings or even a launch if member projects are ready. All such proposed hot-fire and launch activities must be proposed to the RRS president and the selected pyro-op in charge for that day. Some of our member projects such as Wolfram Blume’s Gas Guzzler two-stage ramjet and my second-build of the high-powered hybrid rocket are both still works in progress and may be ready for the early October launch date. Larry Hoffing has been working on an improved solid motor chemistry which he may want to test at the MTA.

The RRS is available for private events before that time, but one must make their request to the RRS president as usual. Some have indicated interest in returning to the site for just a few hours to recover more rockets downrange. Its our policy that at least two members be present for any excursions to the MTA and the RRS president must be notified in advance.

IN CLOSING

Some topics were not able to be covered including the overview of the new RRS Constitution as it gets ready for administrative membership review. Also, facility improvement plans at the RRS MTA including new restroom facilities and blockhouse should be discussed.

The next RRS meeting will be held by teleconference on September 11, 2020 as it is unlikely we will be permitted to return to the Ken Nakaoka Community Center by then. We hope everyone continues to stay safe during these days of the pandemic and try to stay in touch as we are planning another event at the MTA for October 3, 2020.

If there are any questions, please contact the RRS secretary.

secretary@rrs.org


June 2020 Meeting – *Virtual Only*

by Dave Nordling, Reaction Research Society

written by permission from the RRS Secretary


Our June meeting was held by teleconference on June 12th starting at 7:30pm as planned.  Some people did not seem to get the email link with the information to call-in. As always, members are responsible for keeping their contact information current including their emails. Please contact the RRS treasurer with your updated contact information so that all active members can be on distribution.

treasurer@rrs.org

We had over a dozen people calling in which is a fairly good turn-out under these quarantine circumstances. Some of our members actually appreciated being able to call-in rather than travel all the way to Gardena.

RRS members from around the city call into the June 2020 monthly meeting.

Chris Lujan, our treasurer, was able to set this meeting up for us.  Based on the success of the last two meetings, the RRS will make teleconferences a regular part of our meetings even when we return to in-person meetings.  It allows more of us to connect around our local area.  Many of us miss the face to face interaction which we hope will return some day soon.

The RRS has it’s second monthly meeting by teleconference due to COVID-19 concerns.

Dave Nordling and Larry Hoffing gave an update on the next flight of the hybrid rocket. A new rocket body is being made and a better means of ignition will be attempted that should more reliably sever the nitrous fill line.

New rocket body still in build. Hybrid motor was fitted, but recovery system needs to be installed.

Wolfram is still working on subsystem tests of his Gas Guzzler ramjet. He has rebuilt damaged parts and is conducting burner tests to verify important aspects of his design. He may not return to testing at the MTA until October 2020 when the weather is likely to be cooler.

Wolfram Blume’s Gas Guzzler two-stage ramjet prototype sits on display.

John Krell has built a pair of custom avionics chips that can record altitude and accelerations at rapid data rates (1 kHz).  They are small enough to fit in a standard alpha payload tube.  Integration activities are underway. Frank has many of the recovered alphas in storage which often have their payload tubes intact for re-use after some clean up.

A recovered alpha payload tube ready for re-use with another alpha propellant tube.

Keith Yoerg recently retired his latest rocket after 10 flights and achieving certification with it.  He may start a new build but that remains open.

Next MTA launch date was tentatively set for July 25th. We hope to fly some alphas including one with a longer propellant tube (4-feet) in order to compare the results from John’s avionics.

Bill Inman has decided to rejoin the RRS after being away for many years. He was the builder of the Scalded Cat steam rocket and is working on a new design iteration to fly soon at the RRS MTA. A reprinting of his March 2001 article on the Scalded Cat will soon post to our website for those wanted to see this work in detail.

Bill Inman (right) at the RRS MTA working on his launch rail.

The next monthly meeting of the RRS will be July 10th. We are presuming this to be another teleconference only unless LA County lifts the quarantine restrictions and the Ken Nakaoka Community Center re-opens.

Contact the RRS secretary with questions.

secretary@rrs.org


ADDENDUM

Waldo Stakes will be holding a memorial service for Mad Mike Hughes at 12 noon, July 18, 2020, at the 247 Cafe in Lucerne Valley, CA.  Mad Mike was killed in the last flight of his steam-powered manned rocket flight outside of Amboy, CA, on February 22, 2020.

Mad Mike Hughes (left) and Waldo Stakes (right) in front of the “Juan Pollo” manned steam rocket at the 2019 RRS symposium in Gardena, California.

https://www.cnn.com/2020/02/22/us/science-channel-mike-hughes-dead/index.html

Mad Mike wasn’t a member of the RRS but he was one of our exhibitors at the 2019 Symposium last year.  He had his rocket, the Juan Pollo, on display and many people had the chance to meet him. He will be missed by his family and friends including some of our membership.