Build Your Own Rocket Event with Spaceport L.A.

by Larry Hoffing, Educational Outreach Coordinator, Reaction Research Society

The Reaction Research Society (RRS.ORG) is glad to be a part of an upcoming event with Spaceport L.A. The “Rocket Workshop with the RRS” is an excellent opportunity for anyone who wants to get directly acquainted with rocketry. This event is meant for both professionals and non-professionals alike. From younger students to university students of all fields, to adults, this event is meant to give people the experience of assembling and flying your own rocket.

https://www.facebook.com/spaceportla
Spaceport L.A.’s Facebook page has their upcoming events

The event will begin on Saturday, May 4, 2019 with a subsequent launch of the rockets from the RRS Mojave Test Area (MTA) on Saturday, May 18, 2019. At this event, you can learn about the fundamentals and more practical knowledge of rocketry.

The event will be held at the HexLab MakerSpace in Van Nuys. This is laser-cutting service in the Los Angeles area. Check the Spaceport L.A. website for the details and updates.

HexLab MakerSpace is a place for creative people to have the tools they need to make their ideas real
RRS director of research, Richard Garcia, with his brick as a camera tripod

The RRS standard alpha rocket is a very old, but reliable design still used in the society. Although micrograin propellant is not used anywhere else but at the RRS (where it was initially discovered in the 1940’s), it is a simple and powerful propellant combination that makes for an impressive show of raw power. I have attached an earlier description of the RRS standard alpha rocket below.

After the first session, on the second event, you can go out to the RRS’s private Mojave Test Area (MTA) at Koehn Dry Lake, east of Cantil, California in the high desert. The RRS will handle the propellants, you can see the impressive results from the safety of our observation bunker.

alpha launch 03-25-2017
First of ten alphas right at liftoff
Xavier Marshall and Wilbur Owens; Wilbur gets his first RRS alpha

Amateur rocketry is our passion and purpose and the society is glad to hold this event with Spaceport L.A. and the public.

https://www.spaceportla.com/

Spaceport L.A., our sponsor for this Rocket Build Event with the RRS

For questions, look to the Spaceport L.A. official website linked above. For questions about the RRS rocket build event, contact the RRS Educational Outreach Coordinator, Mr. Larry Hoffing.

events@rrs.org

For any questions about the Reaction Research Society, go to our website at RRS.ORG

March 2019 meeting

The Reaction Research Society (RRS) met for our monthly meeting on March 8, 2019, at the Ken Nakaoka Community Center in Gardena, CA. The RRS was glad to welcome our newest associate member, Jaren Li. After our reading of the treasury report, we began the agenda.

[1] Preparing for the RRS symposium, Saturday, April 27, 2019

The first topic was the status of the forthcoming 2019 RRS symposium. This will be an all-day event, Saturday, April 27, 2019. Frank Miuccio, our symposium coordinator, was happy to report we have confirmed Cal Poly Pomona and Northrop Grumman as attendees. With nearly 200 Event-brite tickets sold already, we have 20 exhibitors and nearly a full roster of speakers throughout this all-day event.

https://www.eventbrite.com/e/rrs-2019-rocket-and-space-exhibit-symposium-tickets-54839067126

The RRS will need the help of our membership for setting up on the night before. Also, we expect a good crowd on Saturday and we’ll need our membership again to help support the number of activities going on behind the scenes. The executive council will be contacting our members to enlist their support for specific tasks in the next few weeks. The one thing that everyone can do is spread the word and share our flyers with those interested in coming.

first design of the 2019 RRS symposium flyer, Jan 2019

[2] Improvements to the RRS social media presence

This is to be a regular agenda topic to be led by our two media officers, Bill Janczewski and Alastair Martin. In their absence, the society discussed a few common sense things that will be helpful. Including links in our Instagram and Facebook postings back to the RRS.ORG website should help bring more people to read about us. Also, the RRS should track the number of hits our sites are getting as a way of measuring improvement.

Alastair Martin held the second podcast for “Rocket Talk Radio” at his Hollywood studio. Richard Garcia and I both were pleased to be guests on his show as we talked about the timely subject of Small Launchers. There’s been a lot of recent activity in this area with new businesses such as RocketLab, Vector Space Systems, Relativity Space and Firefly Aerospace entering the market. This project is through Alastair’s company, Production Tribe LLC. You can find Alastair’s podcast at his website at Watch Hollywood -dot- TV:

http://watchhollywood.tv/

Frank Miuccio attended a seminar at the University of Southern California (USC) early this month on leadership of non-profit groups. He said he got a lot of practical advise and suggestions for improvement. He did not have his findings summarized for the March meeting, but he can elaborate on his experiences at the USC seminar at the next meeting.

[3] RRS Mission Statement

A mission statement is a short statement of purpose to describe why an organization exists. After reviewing a few drafts, the society decided to use statements made in our articles of incorporation, but it has not been posted on our website until now. The RRS mission statement can be found near the “Donate” button on the main toolbar of the RRS.ORG website.

[4] RRS Website Articles and Publication Guidelines

It was suggested that RRS ought to publish a set of guidelines for new members and contributors to the RRS.ORG website. The society encourages all of our membership to do more than simply discuss their ideas, but to put them down into writing for the wider audience to see. Our society is one of builders, thinkers and experimenters. We have a long legacy of past articles, but what is equally important is that we continue to contribute to our growing body of knowledge.

The initial set of publication guidelines for website articles was sent to our society membership a couple weeks ago. Although I have not received any formal feedback, the society decided at the March 2019 meeting that those initial publication guidelines will be published both on the RRS.ORG website and on our Facebook page. The society reserves the right to edit and holds the sole discretion to publish articles or not. However, at this time, the RRS is very interested in what kinds of things our membership would like to hear about. More importantly, the society would like our membership to contribute an article.

[5] Loyola Marymount University base11 Liquid Rocket Competition

The RRS has been working with Loyola Marymount University (LMU) in Westchester, CA, providing them with guidance on their liquid rocket vehicle design that will ultimately compete in the base11 Space Challenge. A few members of the LMU team were in attendance at the March 2019 meeting of the RRS. The goal of the competition is to be the first university group to fly a liquid rocket to an altitude of 100 km for a prize of $1,000,000 USD. A link to the base11 home page is below.

The LMU team are very busy assembling their Preliminary Design Review (PDR) submitted presentation which is due in the next few weeks. They were able to ask questions of the society members present on details relevant to their liquid rocket.

Pedro Sales and James Hribal of Loyola Marymount at the March 2019 meeting of the RRS.

Per our charter to support academic groups and our membership, the RRS has supported other liquid rocket competitors in this competition including University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Many of the participants in these competitions later become members of the RRS as it is a very exciting thing to build a rocket of your own.

[6] The LR101 Project with Tomorrow’s Aeronautical Museum

RRS members, Wilbur Owens, Xavier Marshall and myself (Dave Nordling) have joined a project hence known as the “LR101 project”. This project is in coordination with Tomorrow’s Aeronautical Museum (TAM) at the Compton Airport in Compton, CA. This project team also includes students at Compton High School and at the local Compton College.

https://www.tamuseum.org/

The short term goal is to build a suitable static test setup to hot-fire an LR101 vernier motor at the RRS Mojave Test Area (MTA). A link to the Heroic Relics website is below for more details on this small auxiliary rocket motor used in both the prior generation of Atlas and Delta vehicles. This small legacy rocket has been the core of a few liquid rocket projects in the past including at least one at the RRS.

http://heroicrelics.org/info/lr-101/lr-101.html

The primary goal of this project is to renew and expand the RRS presence in liquid rocket testing. The team is working out the basic sizing and requirements at this stage. Later this summer, the RRS members on the TAM team can provide an update.

An LR-101 motor sits on the table at the February 2019 RRS meeting at the EAA 96 hangar.

[X1] Update on the RRS Educational Events

Frank, Larry and Osvaldo gave an update on the latest educational event that the RRS started with Compton Elementary on March 8th. The program is well underway and they plan to finish with a scheduled launch event at the MTA on April 6th. The program, known as “Rockets in the Projects” is in partnership with the LAPD Community Safety Partnership (CSP). This partnership has been very successful in the year and half it has been in operation having had over 100 students and counting participating in the project. Not only does the society get the chance to give back to younger students, but also a chance to inspire younger people to be active in rocketry and science as they grow older.

https://www.facebook.com/lapdcsp

[X2] Rocket Statue On Display at the 2019 RRS Symposium

The RRS events coordinator, Larry Hoffing, raised a question about the Rocket Statue designed by our society director of research, Richard Garcia. Although this statue was designed to be a permanent fixture inside the main gate at the RRS MTA, Larry had asked if a model could be assembled in time to have it on display at the Ken Nakaoka community Center when we hold the symposium on April 27, 2019.

Richard Garcia’s rocket sculpture concept; soon to be seen at the RRS MTA

Based on available resources and time, it seems unlikely to happen, but the RRS has managed to do great things in a short amount of time before. We shall see…

[X3] Cal Poly Pomona visit to the RRS

As a last minute addition to the agenda, James McPherson of Cal Poly Pomona made a short presentation to the society. James is the leader of the solid rocket team for the FAR1030 competition. The RRS has had a lot of experience in helping university groups with many aspect of solid motor design and build at the MTA. James had outlined a plan for their motor construction and the RRS was glad to review it. We did not have sufficient time at the March meeting to discuss Cal Poly Pomona’s project in detail, but we hope they can come back for the April meeting.

Jaren, Laila and James of Cal Poly Pomona stopped in to the RRS March 2019 meeting.

IN CONCLUSION

Our next meeting will be Friday, April 12, 2019, at 7:30pm at the Ken Nakaoka Community Center in Gardena. We’ll certainly be talking more about the symposium as it will be happening just two weeks later on April 27th. We also expect to have a summary from the next launch event at the MTA on April 6th.

If there are any questions or corrections, please contact the RRS secretary.

secretary@rrs.org

Lawn Atlas Missile Base tour

From the ancient armies of China and India and the 19th century British armies using solid rockets in combat, to Von Braun’s work in Nazi Germany and Robert Goddard’s work with the U.S. Navy during the Second World War, the history of rocketry can not be told without mentioning the military aspects of these powerful devices. Modern rocketry at the dawn of the Space Age has roots in one of the most lethal weapons in mankind’s history.

A few years back (June 2014), my wife and I arranged a tour of an unusual piece of Cold War history in the middle of Texas. Larry Sanders, our gracious host is the owner of a former nuclear missile site just outside of the small town of Lawn, Texas. Through his hard work, he has begun to restore his own Cold War museum at this lonely piece of land adjacent to the rolling Texas plains and pastureland.

Longhorn steer grazes on the Texas prairie next to the Lawn Atlas Missile Base

This area, now called the Lawn Atlas Missile Base (LAMB) was once a first-generation Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) site near the small town of Lawn, Texas, less than 20 miles from Abilene, home to Dyess Air Force Base (AFB). Larry gives tours to schools and other interested parties in the local area of central Texas. He’s also been in the local and regional news for his work in restoring his missile silo into a unique historical site for the public.

Lawn Atlas Missile Base from Google Earth satellite imagery

Larry Sanders article – The Eagle

The Atlas ICBM Highway in central Texas (Texas Highway 604, south of Interstate 20)

Larry Sanders gives a tour of the Lawn Atlas Missile Base site outside of Lawn, Texas

In the early days of the Cold War era, the United States and the Soviet Union were in a race to develop launch vehicles to deliver nuclear warheads to the other side of the world from home and friendly territory. The early ICBM’s were liquid fueled rockets based on the higher performance over solid rocket motors of that time. Liquid oxygen (LOX) and kerosene (RP-1) were common high performance propellants in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s (and still commonly used today). The Atlas rocket stood 82.5 feet tall and 10 feet in diameter and with a gross lift-off weight of 268,000 pounds and a total thrust at sea level of 375,000 pounds from all three of its engines could deliver a W38 nuclear warhead over 9000 miles away.

The basic parts of the Atlas F missile

The Atlas rocket designed and built by Convair in San Diego, California, in the 1950’s. The Atlas used a unique vehicle staging concept called “a stage-and-a-half.” Staging of early rocket vehicles at that time was difficult and often plagued with failures. In the 1950’s, there was a concern about reliably igniting the second stage engines in the thin atmosphere at high altitudes. To counter this, the engineers at Convair devised a vehicle that would use a single set of RP-1 and liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks and rapidly ignite all three engines with pyrotechnic cartridges at the same time on the ground. In the middle of ascent, the booster segment would drop away thereby shedding the weight of the two booster engines with their associated pumps in flight. By doing this, the Atlas would finish the mission with only the middle sustainer engine to the end of the flight as the vehicle became lighter.

Rocketdyne MA-3 engine cluster for the Atlas stage-and-a-half rocket

Rocketdyne of Canoga Park, California, built the complex MA-3 engine system for the Atlas ICBM that had two outboard booster engines and a central sustainer engine. The MA-3 engine had a separate turbopump and gas generator for each of the three engines arranged in a line. The MA-3 engine also had two small vernier engines for roll-control, one on opposite sides over the sustainer.

Rocketdyne MA-3 booster engine, LR89-NA-5; two units

Rocketdyne MA-3 sustainer engine, LR105-NA-5; single core engine

Rocketdyne MA-3 vernier engine used on Atlas F vehicle

Atlas booster with the stage-and-a-half concept; outside booster engines fall away leaving the sustainer engine to finish the flight

The Atlas was the first operational ICBM in the American arsenal during the height of the Cold War. Twelve missile bases such as the one near Lawn, Texas, were clustered in around a central strategic command center, a U.S. Airbase in that region. In this case, Dyess Air Force Base in Abilene, Texas, is the former hub of this set of twelve SM-65 Atlas-F type missile sites.

SM-65 Atlas Missile Sites throughout the United States in the 1960’s

Lawn Atlas Missile Base location with respect to Dyess AFB in Abilene, Texas

The Atlas-F type was the last and most advanced version of the SM-65 series. With the RP-1 kerosene fuel loaded and waiting on standby, the Atlas missile was raised vertically from an underground silo to then be tanked with its cryogenic oxidizer (LOX). Air separation plants and special cryogenic liquid handling equipment were required to fuel these first-generation missiles. During its service life, the US Air Force maintained this land-based system to be ready to launch from the surface of the silo within minutes with just a small highly-trained crew.

Atlas-F, SM-65 ICBM in testing

Today, just a few things remain at the surface including the massive, reinforced concrete silo door slab at the Lawn Atlas Missile Base. Two doors are built into the roof where the missile was lowered and raised from its protective silo in the ground.

Lawn Atlas Missile Base – silo and ground access

Atlas-F missile silo as seen from the surface

Top side panaroma of the LAMB site

The Atlas E and F models were the first American ICBM’s to have an on-board computer for guidance using an inertial navigation system. The missile silo had a fixed sighting station to finely calibrate the missile guidance package to make it ready to accurately strike it’s target on the other side of the world. Some parts of this equipment still remain at the site.

The sighting equipment slab facing to the north of the missile silo seen in the background

Atlas ICBM guidance system using an optical sighting apparatus from within the silo

Remnants of communication equipment left at the site

An old antenna mount at the missile site

In the site’s operational period, there were a few small quonset huts at the surface to park servicing equipment for the missile and the silo. Some of the original foundations from these structures still remain at the site as can be seen in the satellite view.

Sketch of the Atlas missile ground support crew and trailers

Atlas F missile base with quonset hut support buildings

Atlas-F perched on the launch table with the blast deflector in place.

Atlas missile stored within its protective silo, erector structure and lifting equipment can be seen

Atlas silo and its underground control room / missile lifted and ready for launch

Our tour started at the protruding angled structure with the surface door angling down below the ground through a convoluted path to the next door.

Atlas F silo – ground access

Ground level door going into the Launch Command Center (LCC) of the Atlas F missile silo; the emergency escape hatch from the LCC can be seen to the right

Down the stair past the first door at ground level

The path from the ground access door leads down two flights of stairs to a couple of turns leading to a pair of entrapment doors. Beyond the entrapment doors are another pair of vault doors. At the LAMB site, a vintage Coke machine is between the two vault doors. Beyond the vault doors leads to a two-floor stair case giving acccess into the round two-floor Launch Control Center (LCC).

entrapment doors in red; the two vault doors in blue

first turn at the bottom of the stairs

the first of two simple doors just around the first corner

The first of two vault doors leading into the stairwell going into the LCC

Vintage (1960’s) Coke machine just behind the first vault door

Vault door latching mechanism

Mechanical vault door actuator from the inside

Once past the radiation-resistant vault door, the two man crew would descend a two-flight set of stairs to access the two-levels of the round LCC. A vintage Coke machine was just behind the door which was a little bit of civilization inside this rugged castle. The whole missile silo was very cool despite the summer heat at the surface, but the humidity inside of the barren silo was very high. Larry said that he very often had to spread desiccant and was frequently combating the mold that would flourish in the moist darkness.

Stairwell access to the Atlas-F LCC

Plate steel stairwell, entering the top floor of the LCC

Bottom of the stairwell, access to the lower deck of the LCC

The Launch Control Center is a two-floor “pillbox” cylinder bunker that housed the crew and the command equipment for operating the missile and the silo equipment. When the site was decommissioned, nearly all of this equipment was removed leaving only the bare walls and only a few non-military items. Having studied the subject and learning what he could from past missileers, our tour guide Larry provided details of where the crew slept, ate and conducted their duties all underground behind the vault door protected from nuclear attack from above.

Identification of equipment and features inside of the LCC

Nearly all of the original wiring and electrical fixtures were stripped out, so Larry has worked to slowly bring back ambient lighting into the LCC, or at least enough to safely conduct tours. Some of my pictures did not turn out so well in the low light, but the LCC had a lot to see.

Launch Control Center (LCC) of the Atlas-F missile silo

top floor inside the LCC in the Atlas-F missile silo

Crew cots around the circumference of the circular LCC (fuzzy from the low light)

Emergency escape hatch from the LCC

Kitchen area inside the LCC, much of this equipment was added (such as the microwave oven)

American eagle emblem hangs just above the kitchen area in the LCC

The lower level had housed the control equipment. Much of this equipment including the electrical fixtures were stripped away. What remains is an old circular photo darkroom and a really nice poster showing the Atlas SM-65 missile.

Picture of the Atlas SM-65 missile next to the circular darkroom for processing camera film

From within the stairwell at the lower level of the LCC, it’s a two-man job, always

Lower level in the LCC

Another view of the lower level of the LCC

The two-story LCC has an access tunnel leading to the missile silo. This circular path had a flat metal grating floor with a corrugated metal piping wall. This access tunnel was heavily corroded from the years of trapped moisture from the missile silo slowly filling with water as the ground water slowly bleeds through the small pores of the concrete. This is a common problem in subterranean structures, like missile silos. My pictures of this access tunnel were difficult to take from the low light conditions even with the camera flash feature.

Circular access tunnel between the LCC and the Atlas missile silo

LCC access tunnel with silo blast doors

Corrugated metal walls of the access tunnel with empty electrical cable trays

A slightly better view of the access tunnel when looking back at the lighted stairwell

A view back at the access tunnel and silo blast doors from the overhanging deck in the missile silo

The missile equipment and silo structures have been stripped out of the silo during decommissioning leaving a dark cavernous cylindrical vault. Larry had a make-shift metal deck installed just at the edge of the opening to the silo, with a rope ladder leading down to a floating platform he set at the waterline.

A look over the edge of the metal deck just past the access tunnel entrance into the missile silo

overhanging metal deck into the missile silo

view looking down into the empty cavernous missile silo; it’s really hard to appreciate just how huge it is inside

Another view of the missile silo interior wall showing the metallic hard point connections for what might have been the missile elevator equipment to bring the rocket to the surface for launch; only the embedded equipment in the walls remain to rust

The two folding doors remain in the down position as the hydraulic piston actuators to open the doors were moved during decommissioning

Over time, rainwater would leak in from the silo doors at the top. Also, groundwater slowly seeps through the concrete filling the silo roughly half full of very clean, very fresh water. Larry is not entirely sure what, if anything, is remaining down at the bottom of the silo. Divers had once expressed interest in exploring the bottom of the silo, but thus far, no one has explored the bottom. My pictures really do not do justice to this impressive site of being within this empty silent tomb.

Looking up at the silo door in the slab from inside of the missile silo

Floating platform within the empty Atlas-F missile silo full of fresh groundwater

After seeing the missile silo, we returned to the LCC to examine some of the posters and documents Larry had collected on the Atlas missile and the missile base.

Collection of photos and Atlas missile silo information

Location of the Lawn missile base in the set of 12 surrounding Dyess AFB in Abilene, Texas

Figurative drawing of the Atlas F missile silo, on display in the LCC

poster of the Pocket Rockets in Texas

As the Atlas was being deployed as weapon, the rocket fulfilled an important early role in the manned spaceflight program. The first Americans in space, Alan Shepard and Gus Grissom, flew on Redstone rockets, but were unable to reach orbit. John Glenn, the first American to orbit the Earth in 1962, did so in his Friendship 7 Mercury capsule fitted on the more powerful Atlas used as a manned spaceflight vehicle.

An Atlas ICBM adapted to launch the Mercury capsule piloted by John Glenn

John Glenn, the first American to orbit the Earth, catching a ride on an Atlas.

Atlas-Mercury 6 launch

Although the Atlas had a fairly short operational history as an ICBM (1961-1966), derivatives of the same Atlas launch vehicle design continued to serve an important role as a space launch vehicle for military, government and commercial payloads. The remaining Atlas F vehicles became space launch vehicles with the last one flying out in 1981. The Atlas F could loft a 820 kg (1800 lbm) payload to a 185 km polar orbit.

Starting with the Atlas G and H vehicles, the Atlas evolved over the decades all the way into the early 2000’s. The last derivative of the original Atlas ICBM was the Atlas 2AS vehicle with a Rocketdyne MA-5A engine cluster that flew its last flight in 2004.

Atlas H launches a payload to space

An Atlas 2AS takes flight

I really recommend visiting the LAMB site as Larry Sanders has really put a lot of his time and resources into gradually recovering the site from the great state of disrepair after being left dormant for decades. He has done a lot of great work in restoring the place and is active in continuing the project. The LAMB tour offers people a rarely seen part of Cold War history. Although, the missile silo is now an empty vault serving as a museum, it’s easy to forget that this site was built to be one of the most lethal weapon systems ever created. Pictures do not really tell the whole story as visiting the site in person can give you the feeling of being inside a place manned by a handful of dedicated servicemen charged with the awesome and haunting responsibility of maintaining a crucial element of the nation’s nuclear deterrent ready for a day that thankfully never came.

Although the Cold War era ended in 1991, land-based strategic nuclear weapons remain in operation in Russia, the United States, China and other countries around the world.

For future reading, there’s a few websites dedicated to the Atlas missile bases from the Cold War. One has the specific details of the Atlas-F, the last and most advanced in the series.

Atlas Missile Silo

Another good place to look at the old missile sites is SiloWorld.net

Siloworld.net

Also, for those interested in the Atlas SM-65 rocket, Wikipedia has a nice summary.

SM-65 Atlas – Wikipedia

Atlas rocket family – Wikipedia

If you’re ever in the Abilene area and interested in a tour of LAMB or just interested in more information on the LAMB site and Atlas ICBM history, readers are encouraged to contact Larry Sanders by his email below:

atlassilo@yahoo.com

I hope you’ve enjoyed this article as this has been a few years, but a very memorable experience. For any questions or comments, contact the RRS secretary.

secretary@rrs.org

***