Scalded Cat Steam Rocket Project Report

by William J. Inman, Reaction Research Society


Editor’s Note: This article was originally published in the March 2001 issue of RRS News, an RRS print magazine. It is reprinted here on June 20, 2020, for the RRS.ORG website with permission from the author and from the RRS. Copyright belongs to the author and the RRS.

Some of the products mentioned in the article are still available and links to the company website are provided solely for the reader’s convenience but does not constitute an endorsement of any product by the RRS.


William J. Inman’s Scalded Cat Steam Rocket Project

STEAM ROCKET THEORY

Water has the ability to hold and store a tremendous amount of energy in the form of heat. Unlike more conventional propellants that store their energy chemically, the steam rocket, or hot water rocket as it’s known, relies on the amount of heat stored in the water. Two other properties of water that make the steam rocket work so well are the vapor pressure developed as the water is heated beyond it’s “normal” boiling point and that when released it will expand to 1700 times the volume it occupied in the liquid state. It can be heated to 700 degrees Fahrenheit (at 3200 psi) before it reaches it’s critical point. Power increases with heat, but so does pressure, so the farther up the scale it goes the stronger the tank needs to be to withstand the pressure. Optimum performance is a balancing act between power of higher pressure and the weight of a stronger tank. Obviously, the tank should be made of the strongest, lightest weight, heat resistant material available… Titanium would undoubtedly be the ultimate if cost were no object.

Vapor pressure of water at increasing temperatures up to critical point of 705 F.

In the nozzle, the water starts flowing as it enters the convergent section. The venturi principle causes the local pressure to drop as velocity increases through the nozzle, and as pressure drops, the water starts flashing to steam. This steam, as it expands, continues to accelerate in the divergent section. The percentage of water that actually becomes steam depends on the amount of stored heat in the water. The temperature will drop all the way to the ambient boiling point at the nozzle exit, being converted to kinetic energy in the form of jet velocity. This velocity can exceed Mach 2 in a well-designed nozzle. As the water level in the tank drops, it boils, keeping the volume above it filled with steam, maintaining the equilibrium. This also consumes some of the heat in the tank, so the tank pressure will drop about 25% during the course of the discharge.

THE ROCKET

The “Scalded Cat” Motor

At the time I started this project, I knew much less about steam rocket theory than I do now. The motor was based on a piece of surplus 4-inch diameter, type 316 stainless steel, schedule 10 pipe that I found. Wall thickness was 0.120 inches and the burst pressure as stated by the supplier was 4000 psi. I got a pair of stainless steel domed end caps and had them welded on, then a hole bored in the center of one and a 1-inch threaded stainless steel pipe fitting welded in for the nozzle attachment. Three steel fin-mounting tabs were welded to the nozzle end of the tank and a flange for mounting the payload section was welded to the other end. Compared to the 45 pound welding oxygen cylinder I used for most of my static testing, this was a lightweight tank, but at 24 pounds, it’s still pretty heavy for a flight tank. To take advantage of its strength and to partially offset its weight, I ran it at higher pressures than most previous steam rockets that I read about. The flight on December 2, 2000, was at 1500 psi tank pressure (610 degrees Fahrenheit). Theoretical specific impulse (Isp) at this heat is around 75 lb-sec / lb.

Welded-on steel fin mounts with nozzle screws into the bottom tank head.

The nozzle was machined aluminum with a 3/8-inch throat; a figure I arrived at because I wanted a throat area of 0.110 square inches. There was a curved convergent section who’s curve radius was 12 times the throat diameter, then the divergent section had a half-angle of 10 degrees (20 degrees between the walls) and an expansion ratio of 18.3 to 1. This made the exit diameter 1.600 inches. The throat was 1/2-inch long to give a pair of O-rings on the plug a place to seat.

Scalded Cat steam rocket nozzle design

The fins were 0.085-inch thick aluminum and were bolted to the steel fin tabs at the bottom of the tank by running machine screws through the fins and screwing them into the threaded holes in the tabs. The fins extended beyond the back of the tank and also bolted to tabs on the fiberglass boat-tail to help secure it. The boat-tail also had a ring at the back end that slipped over the nozzle to keep it straight.

Boat tail with aluminum fins bolted into the welded steel fin attach points. Nozzle retention points at the nozzle.

The payload section mounting flange was a piece of stainless pipe 1/4-inch smaller in diameter than the tank and 0.030-inch thinner. It was 3-inch long with three semi-circular notches cut in one end leaving three “pedestals” that were welded to the top of the tank. This reduced the steel to steel contact and hopefully the heat transfer rate from the tank to the flange. A total of six holes, three sets of two, were drilled and tapped in this flange for the mounting of the payload section adapter.

Vehicle Specifications

Length = 7.5 feet

Diameter = 4.5 inches

Weight (filled) = 53.2 lbs.

Water capacity = 8.5 liters / 2.25 gallons (80% full)

Operating temperature = 610 degrees Fahrenheit

Tank pressure = 1500 psi

Calculated tank yield point = 1800 psi

Estimated peak thrust = 297 lbs.

Thrust duration = 4.75 seconds

Estimated power = 5500 Newton-seconds, “M 1155”

Propellant mass fraction = 35%

Parachute (tank) = PML, 84-inches

Parachute (payload) = PML, 54-inches

Electronics = Adept ALTS2 and Blacksky AltAcc2

Deployment charges = 3 (redundant)

Charge igniters = 4 (redundant)

Bridle (shock cord) = Kevlar “muletape”

Fins = 3 (aluminum)

Nozzle throat area = 0.110 square inches

Nozzle expansion ratio = 18.3

Divergent cone taper = 20 degrees between walls

The Payload Section Adapter

This part was used to provide a slip-fit mount for the composite payload section while helping isolate it from the heat. It bolted to the mounting flange with six machine screws and extended 6.5 inches up beyond the end of the flange so the area in contact with the payload section would not be touching a hot steel surface on the other side. I needed something strong, heat resistant, a poor heat conductor, and made of a material I could work with. The only epoxy I could find that claimed to be good to 600 degrees Fahrenheit was J-B Weld, so it was thinned with lacquer thinner and used as the laminating resin for a Kevlar structure.

The top end of the tank and the mounting flange and eye-bolt. The payload section is in front of the motor. Notches in the Kevlar ring are to minimize contact with the payload tabs.
Looking down into the electronics bay. The plywood ring with ends of two “T-nuts” are visible with silicone “form-a-gasket” on the inner edge. AltAcc is mounted to the airframe (left) while a brass charge canister is inserted into the gas baffle for the backup charge (right). When the lid is installed, the altimeter and the other two canisters fit in between this other equipment (a close fit!).

J-B Weld – Adhesive Products

A J-B Weld and Kevlar ring was epoxied to the outside as a stop to keep the bottom edge of the payload section 1.85 inches above the upper edge of the steel flange. A Kevlar and J-B Weld “floor” or bulkhead was added to put another heat barrier between the tank and the payload section. Cellulose insulation was stuffed into the area between the tank and bulkhead.

The Payload Section

For this section, I used an 18-inch length of 4-inch phenolic tubing from LOC Precision with several layers of fiberglass wrapped around it.

LOC Precision – Rocket Kits and Accessories

I was concerned about the heat from the tank damaging it so I added 2-inch of Kevlar and J-B Weld composite to the bottom where it was closest to the metal flange. The bottom 11-inches of the payload section was open and housed the 84-inch PML parachute. The Kevlar “muletape” shock line was attached to a 3/8-inch eye-bolt in the top of the tank. Above this section was a 1/2-inch plywood bulkhead that housed a black powder charge and expansion chamber / stainless steel gas baffle section. There were two igniters in this charge, one connected to the Adept ALTS2 altimeter and the other to the Blacksky AltAcc2 accelerometer. These were to be triggered by the “main” event switches on the two electronic devices to blow the chute out if the 54-inch pilot chute hadn’t already deployed it. I did this for a backup system in case the payload section got soft and sticky from the heat and didn’t slide off easily as planned.

The whole steam rocket assembly with nosecone, payload and the metal propellant tank to hold the water propellant load.

There was a compartment above the bulkhead where the altimeter and accelerometer were housed. The three canisters for the powder charges were also in this compartment, blowing their gases through the bulkheads into the gas baffles. The canisters were 1/2-inch brass pipe nipples with 3/8-inch plugs inserted in one end with pipe threads, sealed with Teflon tape. The igniter wires were inserted through holes in these plugs and sealed with 6-minute epoxy. The AltAcc was attached to the inner wall of the airframe in the usual manner and the ALTS2 was attached to a piece of aluminum box tubing that was epoxied to the removable lid of this compartment.

The compartment lid was also 1/2-inch plywood with a 3/8-inch eye-bolt attached to it’s center and a gas baffle compartment on each side of the eye-bolt. The underside of this lid had a ring of Permatex “blue” silicone form-a-gasket where it sealed to the mounting ring. There were also two threaded holes, one at the base of each gas baffle, for the brass change canisters to screw into. Four stainless steel #6 machine screws held the lid to the mounting ring, which was made of 1-inch plywood epoxied to the inner wall of the airframe tube. “T”-nuts embedded in this built-up ring distributed the load from the screws. On the 3/8-inch eye-bolt was the Kevlar “muletape” shock line to the 54-inch PML pilot chute.

The Nosecone and Parachute Arrangement

The nosecone was a 4-inch LOC Precision unit with a wrap of 1.8 ounce Kevlar on the inside of the neck to help reinforce it after the bottom had been removed to gain access to the interior space. A 3-foot length of Kevlar “muletape” was attached to the inside of the tip of the nosecone by having a loop go around an aluminum cross-rod inserted through holes on each side of the nosecone tip. This whole assembly was then encased in a solid mass of epoxy, then the cross-rod cut off flush with the outside surface of the nosecone. On the other end of this line was a loop sewn in with Kevlar thread from Edmund Scientific. The 15-foot main shock line and parachute shroud lines were all attached at this point. The main shock line had accordion folds sewn into it with Kevlar thread. The stitches were not heavy duty so they would break when a load was applied. The first six folds had a single stitch holding them, the second set of six folds had a double stitch, the third set had a triple stitch and the fourth had a quadruple stitch. The idea was that the singles would break first, letting out 3 inches of line out at each break and adding tension. Then the doubles would start breaking, increasing tension and still letting out 3 inches per fold. By the time all the stitches were broken (which they were), hopefully things would be slowed down enough to keep the final shock from being too severe. (Kevlar does not stretch.) The 25-foot line from the tank to the 84-inch parachute was stitched up in this same manner.

Accordion folds were sewn into “muletape” Kevlar bridle line. Breaking the stitches allows the line to lengthen while adding increased tension and slowing the rate of separation, reducing shock when the line pulls tight.
The “recovery module” was built onto a 1/2-inch plywood disc that also served as the electronics compartment lid. The two gas baffles on the left of the disc with an eye-bolt between them are reinforced with Kevlar. The two brass change canisters (the far one is behind the altimeter) can be seen with the igniter wires in their end plugs. The Adept altimeter is bolted to a piece of aluminum box tubing.
The first flight of the Scalded Cat used the nose cone tot the left.

THE GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT

The Launch Tower

Somehow I got the bright idea to build a tower with six longitudinal tubes of 1/2-inch electrical metal tubing (EMT). There would be one on each side of each of the three fins, just far enough apart to let the fin pass without binding. The reason was so I could pop rivet the three burner shrouds to these tubes, allowing each shroud to cover the entire tank surface between fins. “U” shaped strap steel brackets were welded to each set of tubes to hold them together and allow the fins to pass through. The three “U” brackets were held together by other pieces of steel strap welded to the outside corners, making a triangle shape at each of these brace points. The braces were spaced every 47-inches along the length of the 25-foot tower. For the real support, three lengths of 1-inch EMT were welded to the outside of the points of these “triangles”, also running the full length of the tower. In retrospect, diagonal cross braces should have been used and the second set of 1/2-inch tubes should have ended right above the tank where there was no longer any need for them. Anyway, it worked well enough. Three guy wires ran from the 12-foot point to anchors in the ground and another three ran from the 24-foot point to a second set of anchors 2 feet past the first set. Turnbuckles on all six ends made adjustment precise and easy.

The tower could be raised and lowered by pivoting on a stand which was a 3/4-inch galvanized pipe sitting in mounts on two 37-inch high welded steel “A-frames”. A flat attachment point was welded to two of the 1-inch EMT main supports and “U-bolts” went around the 3/4-inch pipe and through holes in the flats. To raise it, a couple of guys would get under the top end, raise it over their heads and start walking towards the base. After it was raised a certain amount, a third guy would start pulling a rope tied to the 12-foot point. A bolt on the bottom of the lower tower extension went through the base to hold it in position while the guy wires were being adjusted, and then help lock everything together.

The detached lower tower extension with the plug/release mechanism sitting in its notches. The release lever arm is sticking out in back. The fiberglass-covered styrofoam steam deflector is epoxied into the bottom. The hole in the flat bottom plate on the right is to bolt it to the plywood base.

The lower tower extension was a 17-inch piece of 7-inch diameter well casing with slots and access holes cut in it. A bottom plate was welded on for a place to bolt the plywood base, and three 3/8-inch headless bolts were welded to the upper end to bolt to the bottom of the tower. There was a fiberglass-covered styrofoam steam deflector in the bottom of this piece to direct the steam flow away from the electric actuators and the gas valve.

The Tower Base

This was what the tower sat on and what held all the peripheral ground support equipment. It was a 30-inch square piece of 3/4-inch thick plywood with two galvanized “Telespar” box sections bolted along the bottom of two opposite edges. These box sections were 36-inch long so they protruded 3-inches past each end of the plywood. Each of these four ends had a hole drilled in it to accept a 5/8-inch steel hold-down stake. The two welded “A-frame” tower supports bolted to the edges of the plywood base and had cross-bracing on the back side. A pipe coupler was welded to the top of each of these “A-frames” so the 3/4-inch tower support pipe could slide through.

A bracket to hold the release actuator was attached to one side of the tower and a bracket to hold the gas valve actuator was attached near the back of the lower tower extension. Then there was a third bracket to hold the clamp that secured the gas manifold near the back edge of the base. The plywood was thoroughly primed and painted to ward off the effects of the elements and the steam blast.

The Nozzle Plug / Release

Based loosely on the release mechanism designed by Bob Truax for his steam rockets in the 1950’s and 1960’s, this multi-talented device serves several purposes. First, it plugs the nozzle throat so no water or steam will escape before it’s released. Second, it provides a connection to the pressure gauge so it can be monitored during heating. Third, it has the integral clamping system that holds the rocket on the plug until released, and (provide) the means of releasing it.

The central plug is machined out of steel and has a long narrow taper to the 3/8-inch tip that goes into the nozzle throat. This tip is 0.60 inches long and has two O-ring grooves to accept Parker fluorocarbon or “Viton” O-rings to make the seal. The part below the taper is threaded with 7/8-inch bolt threads. A hole is drilled through the center to provide access to the tank pressure.

The plug/release mechanism locked onto the nozzle (boat-tail removed). The brass fitting connects to a steel brake line to the pressure gauge. Rotating the release cam (holding the red bars out) allows the bars to pivot off the nozzle.

The bottom end of the plug is drilled and threaded to accept a 1/8-inch brass pipe fitting. This fitting is an adapter that allows a 5/16-inch automotive steel brake line to be used to connect the pressure gauge, which sits on the tower’s 3/4-inch support pipe on the end facing the blockhouse.

A support structure with three “spokes” is built around a 7/8-inch nut that screws onto the plug. The “spokes” are steel box tubing long enough to reach past the wall of the lower tower extension and sit in the bottom of three dedicated notches in the extension. Each of the spokes has a rectangular hole cut in it’s top and bottom to allow a smaller piece of square steel bar to pass through. This bar is pinned to the spoke by a 1/4-inch bolt running through it crossways, allowing it to pivot. When the three bars are brought together at the top, they contact the tapered outer walls of the nozzle like fingers.

Below the structure with the spokes and bars is a cam plate made from a round piece of 1/8″ steel sheet welded to a bored-out 7/8-inch nut that slips onto the plug. Three equally-spaced half-round notches are cut into the edge of this plate. The spacing between the plate or cam and the “spokes” structure is adjusted with washers between the two. When adjusted correctly, the “cam” edges of the plate will hold the bottom edges of the three bars out at a distance that positions the other end of the bars so they hold the nozzle firmly onto the plug, with the O-rings seated in the throat by “gripping” the tapered outer walls like fingers holding a knob. Rotating this cam by pulling on an attached lever arm with a 12-volt DC electric linear actuator allows the bottoms of the three bars, or fingers, to fall into the three notches, pivoting around the 1/4-inch bolts and releasing the nozzle from it’s grip. A 7/8-inch “keeper nut” with a nylon insert is screwed onto the plug below the cam and give it something to ride on and keep the spacing so it turns freely but doesn’t have excess play.

The Burners and Gas Delivery System

At the bottom of the tower are three sheet metal burner shrouds that are as long as the tank (48 inches). In the bottom of each of these shrouds is a 30,000 BTU propane gas log lighter for a fireplace attached by two “U-bolts”. There are adapters for flexible appliance gas lines on each burner to attach to the manifold. The manifold is a 1/2-inch pipe nipple and “L’s” on each side, creating three points to attach the flex-lines. A clamp with three notches fits over these three lines at the manifold, holding it to the plywood base. On the other end of the feed nipple is a brass ball valve with a union on the other end. The rubber hose from the propane bottle is connected to the manifold at this union.

Launch tower erected with the power cables running back to the blockhouse, propane bottle to the right feeding the burners

Attached to the ball valve is an aluminum extension that is painted bright red so the valve position can be determined visually from the blockhouse. Also attached to the valve handle is the end of a 24-volt DC electric linear actuator attached to the control panel in the blockhouse. This actuator is used to open and close the gas supply to the main burners.

Electric linear actuators used in the launch process.
4.5-inch pressure gauge with a red plate behind it for easier visibility.
Sheet metail placed around the three burner shrouds for better heat retention. Propane torch igniters seen at the bottom. Steam pressure gauge is reading tank pressure.

Three small handheld propane torches are positioned around the base of the tower pointed up into the shroud burner areas. These act as pilot lights for the main burners should they need to be turned off and then back on again. They also add additional BTU’s to the heating effort but don’t put out enough to maintain heat (and pressure) by themselves.

The Control Devices and Panel

Pressure is monitored visually by watching a 4.50-inch diameter pressure gauge with binoculars from the blockhouse. Heating is controlled by a gas valve in the line to the main burners. A 24-volt DC linear actuator is attached to the handle of the gas valve and opens and closes it by pushing and pulling. It is wired to a double pole-double throw (DPDT) toggle switch on the control panel so that pushing it one direction opens the valve and pushing it the other direction closes it. It is a three-position momentary switch so releasing it allows it to spring back to the center “off” position. The power comes from two 12-volt batteries wired in series in the box. The control panel is actually the lid of the battery box.

The directional control switch and “launch button” are located under the safety flap on the control panel. Both the 24-volt system cord to the gas valve actuator and the 12-volt system cord to the launch actuator extending from the right side of the box.

Launch is initiated with another electric actuator, this one a 12-volt DC unit, also wired through a DPDT toggle switch in the battery box. Three 12-volt batteries wired in parallel power this actuator. One lead goes through a momentary red pushbutton switch wired in series with the DPDT switch. The DPDT is a two position, one for extend, the other for retract. This allows the cam to be rotated back to the “reset” position easily, which is good because we had to move it back and forth once to release the rocket for it’s maiden flight. The red “launch” pushbutton and the DPDT toggle switch controlling the direction of the release actuator are both under a spring-loaded safety flap made from an outside electrical box outlet cover.

Another view of the control panel with cable feed-through glands. Use of 12-gauge extension cords works well.

To connect the control box to the actuators at the pad, color-coded 12-gauge extension cord is used. Two 25-foot cords were bought, one yellow, the other blue with an orange stripe. Yellow is for the 24-volt gas valve actuator while blue-and-orange is for the 12-volt release actuator. These 25-foot cords were cut a few feet from the “female” end and attached to their respective switches in the box with the ends dangling outside a foot or so. The other long piece was wired to the actuators with the “male” end like a regular power cord on any appliance or power tool. Two 100-foot cords with the same color coding bridged the distance from the blockhouse to the pad.

THE MAIDEN FLIGHT

Setup and Preparation

The tower base already leveled and staked down on launch day and the tower was waiting nearby. The guy wire anchors were driven in at the pre-determined and marked spots and the peripherals were all attached to the base and tower. The igniters and deployment charges were already set up earlier in the motel room so once it was time to start the heating, the altimeter and AltAcc were turned on. After the tower was raised vertical and secured, the burners were lit and the AltAcc armed. We did not time the heating, but it went fairly quickly once a piece of sheet metal was wrapped around the tower at the position of the heaters. It was carefully bent so the fins would pass inside it during launch. When the pressure reached 1400 psi and then launch hopefully at a point where it had dropped to 1350 psi, the target pressure. Instead, the pressure continued to climb to 1500 psi, where it stayed until launch.

Bill Inman makes a minor adjustment to the fins of his steam rocket, the Scalded Cat
“Team Steam” shortly before the launch. From left to right: Jeanne Hoover, Bill Inman and Tim Clifford.

The Flight

When the release actuator was retracted, nothing happened. This had happened before, but when checked again during my last static test, it worked fine. Here we were sitting at 1500 psi with the release cam turned and the rocket just sitting there. So I had Tim Clifford, my partner and launch officer, switch the directional control to “reset”, work the actuator, then flip it back to “launch” and try it again. This time, after a couple seconds of hesitation, it took off on the most beautiful plume of steam I’ve ever seen. From the blockhouse it is not possible to visually follow a rocket very far into it’s flight through the small windows, so we just stood there listening to the roar as the sound came from farther and farther away. Finally, it stopped and for a brief moment there was no sound, until there was some cheering from the bunkers. The command was given over the P-A system to “quiet down”, and to “listen for an impact”. A few seconds later there was cheering again, and this time a more irritated repeat command was given only to be answered by shouts. “What was that?” … “A paraachute?” … “Two parachutes?” … “O.K. Keep an eye on it and stay under cover until the heavy piece is down.”

Launch of the Scalded Cat at approximately 2:30pm, December 2, 2000. Not the clearest view of the launch from behind the weathered blast windows of the blockhouse.
Another view of the steam rocket launch, photo courtesy of Richard Butterfield

Knowing it was under canopy was the best feeling of all. I have seen so many rockets crash because of recovery system failure that it makes that part especially critical. There was also the satisfaction of knowing that along with being the first successful steam rocket launch in the 57-year history of the RRS (at that time in the year 2000), it was also going to be one of the very few RRS flights to make a soft landing under parachute. I was able to squeeze out through the blockhouse door enough to actually see the parachutes coming down in the southwestern sky, the tank falling slightly faster than the payload section.

Parachute recovery was successful
Jeanne Hoover stands over the safely recovered motor.

Post-Recovery Examination

The only damage found was where the ring at the base of the boattail got broken in two spots from being driven into the ground from the weight of the tank. Otherwise, everything was all right and the altimeter was reporting 4,479 feet. That evening, Bill Seiders was kind enough to download the AltAcc on his computer. It showed a maximum acceleration of 128 feet per second (4 G’s) to a velocity of 506 feet per second (345 MPH), a coast time of 15 seconds, and a peak altitude of 4,400 feet.

Blast pattern after the steam rocket launch. Very little equipment damage after the launch.

Editor’s post-script: Bill Inman has decided to rejoin the RRS after being away for many years. We enjoyed talking with him at our virtual meeting on June 12, 2020. He spoke by teleconference as we are still unable to hold our meetings in person at the Ken Nakaoka Community Center in Gardena, California, due to the COVID-19 restrictions from the city of Los Angeles. Bill has decided to start a new steam rocket build based on the many lessons learned over the years and we hope he’ll teach some of us how to make this unique form of rocket fly.

A multi-staged vehicle with peak sensor

The following is a report written in February of 1985 by RRS members George Dosa and Frank Miuccio. The report details a three-stage rocket with several illustrations. For the sake of preservation, this report is reproduced in this article.

—- —-
A MULTI-STAGED VEHICLE WITH PEAK SENSOR
by Frank Miuccio and George Dosa

The purpose of this report is to document the building and testing of a three stage vehicle with a peak sensing device. Short betas were chosen for the 1st and 2nd stage and a short Mark Series for the 3rd stage. The peak sensor will be a photocell intended to detect the change from sky to ground and activate a parachute system. The 2nd and 3rd stage will be fired using inertia switches and a unique 3rd stage interlock system. A minor test will be of a passive sound emitter on the 2nd stage.

Also, (in this project) going to see if white, black or stainless is the best color to see (when spotting the rocket).

NOTE:
The report has sketches of the individual stages of the three-stage rocket and their interconnections.

first stage, shortened RRS standard beta, micrograin

2nd stage – shortened standard beta, micrograin rocket

3rd stage – Mark series rocket

556 timer chip, schematic

Sketch of the 3-stage rocket design

Second to third stage coupler design – sketch

Photo of the 3-stage rocket design

[more images and details to come, work in progress]

—- —-

For questions, contact the author, Frank Miuccio.
vicepresident@rrs.org

or the RRS secretary
secretary@rrs.org

Report on timer circuit design

This is a posting of a report written by our current society vice-president, Frank Miuccio, many years back. It has been reproduced here on our website for preservation. A hard-copy revision of the document will be published in the society archives. The original date shows it was Revision A, dated March 9, 1989, nearly 30 years ago. Some of the figures mentioned in the text are missing (until we find them again) and others have been remade for clarity.

Frank’s timer report, original cover from 1989

In reading the report, you can see that the technology of some aspects of the design are no longer commonly practiced, such as the use of mercury switches and mechanical relays, but the circuit principles are still sound. I have noticed that the model rocketry community, such as our friends at Rocketry Organization of California (ROC), have made great strides in timer designs.

Rocketry Organization of California

There are many commercial suppliers across the country that make a range of simple and complex designs that are reliable and affordable. Some products can be bought ready to use in your rocket application.

Eggtimer Rocketry

Also noteworthy is that lithium polymer battery technology is taking over from the conventional 9-volt. This doesn’t come as a surprise to many, but certainly worth mentioning. Some people still use the old battery types, but there are many smaller and very powerful options in batteries thanks to the growing airborne drone community.

It is the society’s intention to show this report to inspire our members today to expand upon the work done before. Many effective timer circuits are commercially available, but years before, to have such a device required a bit of ingenuity combined with plain trial and error. Enjoy!

——

TIMER CIRCUIT REPORT
by Frank Miuccio, RRS

On June 25, 1988 at the Mojave Test Area (MTA), a single stage micrograin (80% zinc, 20% sulfur) rocket was flown with a simple payload that anyone can build. The payload consists of a timer that was set for approximately 18 seconds, a parachute, and an ejection mechanism. The timer was used to eject a parachute 18 seconds after burnout and was designed to incorporate the least amount of components. The timer consists of 4 components, 2 batteries and 2 safety switches and a mercury switch.

The main objectives of the payload were the following:
(1) To verify that the ejection mechanism (shown in Figure 1A and 1B) works properly. The ejection mechanism was designed and built by a member of the RRS.
(2) To verify that the mercury switch activates at burnout and stays on for the time constant.
(3) To verify that the timing circuit (shown in Figure 2) functions properly and can withstand the flight environment.

The flight was a success. The parachute ejected and was spotted by the tracking crew, who were located approximately 1000 feet away from the launcher. All three objectives were met with a positive result. A few shortcomings were noted. The parachute, 24 inches in diameter, drifted the rocket north-east and the rocket was lost. Also, the color of the parachute was white which was a problem in spotting.

Figure 2: Timer Circuit

The timing circuit has been used three times.

The first time was on December 28, 1986 on a two-stage rocket. It was used as a separation time delay for the second stage. The timer was installed in the uppermost section of the first stage motor prior to fueling. It primary function was to ignite the second stage 2 seconds after burnout of the first stage. During fueling of the first stage, a problem was noted. The timer was being exposed to extreme bouncing due to our fueling technique.

The next time, the timer was used as a stage delay was in December 1988. The circuit was packaged in a separate module which would be installed after fueling of the rockets.

The third attempt wasn’t as successful as the other two. The timer failed to function. A possible culprit could have been one of the safety switches which was installed backwards. The switch was installed with the “ON” in the upward position. This creates a problem since the acceleration (from launch) could force the switch in the “OFF” position (downward).

The timer looks promising that it can cover various time constants. To determine the desired time the values of the capacitor [C1] and resistor [R1] can be varied. One can calculate the values needed as follows in the formula below.

Time delay = [C1] * [R1] * 1.10

The following steps are used to achieve the desired time constant when building the circuit:

(1) Wire and/or solder in the circuitry except the resistor [R1] and capacitor [C1].

(2) Chose a value for the capacitor [C1] and permanently install it in the circuit. Note that the value needs to be in the microfarad (uF) range. In this report, a 22 uF capacitor was used.

(3) Calculate the value needed for the resistor [R1] by using the time delay formula. Note that this will only give you an approximation of the actual time delay. The resistance will be in the kilo-Ohm to low mega-Ohm range.

(4) Adjust a potentiometer (also called a “pot” or a “trim-pot”) to the calculated value (Pin 1 to the wiper) and temporarily connect the pot in place of the resistor [R1] (pin 1 to the wiper).

Potentiometer (adjustable resistor) next to a fixed value resistor

(5) Test the timer to find out if you need to adjust the pot by increasing or decreasing its resistance. Note that if the timer delay is longer than the desired time constant, decrease the pot resistance. Conversely, if the timer delay is too short, increase the pot resistance.

(6) Adjust the pot as needed and repeat Step 5 to get the timer delay correct.

(7) Measure the resistance value of the pot (Pin 1 to wiper) with a voltmeter then find and permanently install a fixed resistor of that value in its place [R1]. In this report, a value of 732 kilo-Ohms was measured when the circuit met the desired time period. A more common size of resistor is 750 kilo-Ohms which is close enough.

(8) Test the timer to verify the accuracy of the time constant.

(9) Once the circuit is tested and complete, surround and enclose the timer circuit with RTV. This is needed due to the G’s experienced during flight.

GOOD LUCK!

—————–

Editor’s notes:

I have found that in modern times (circa 2018) electronic component stores are not as common as they once were. RadioShack is still in business, but they are not the big company that they used to be. I have had good luck in getting what I need from a local store in my neighborhood in Westminster, CA (Orange County). They have nearly everything an electronic hobbyist could want including lithium polymer batteries of all sizes.

JK Electronics in Westminster, CA

JK Electronics – Westminster, CA

Ordering from online suppliers (DigiKey) is always an option, but the catalog information posted by the mainstream suppliers can be difficult to interpret if you are not an electronics expert. Also getting small quantities (less than 100 units) can also make ordering excessively expensive when the shipping costs far more than the handful of parts you are ordering. Amazon and Ebay can be a helpful resource, but the buyer must be aware of the specifics of exactly what you need. Always do your homework, consult the advice of experts and you will be more sure to get the components you want.

Also of historical note, the K1 RELAY element of Frank’s timer circuit used a W107DIP-5 (5-volt) mechanical relay made by Magnecraft Electrical Company of Northbrook, Illinois. Frank had the actual catalog from Magnecraft in his report so I took a photo of the relay he had selected.

Magnecraft Electric Company, original print catalog

In this photo to the left, you can see the circuit diagram of how this Dual In-Line Packaged (DIP) reed relay is connected. This 107 model is a normally open (NO) single-pole, single-throw (SPST) type of device and contact rated for 10 VA.

Magnecraft W107DIP-5 catalog specs and circuit diagram

I’m not sure if Magnecraft Electric Company is still around, but a modern update to the timer circuit design would likely use a solid-state NPN type of bipolar junction transistor (BJT) instead of the mechanical relay. This exercise is left to the individual to pursue, but not in this article.

NPN type of Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)

example of an NPN-type of BJT, rated for 1-watt, connections are labelled

It is important to make sure you know which pin or connection is which. The polarity of the circuit element you are using can be critical. For example, the longer lead on a capacitor is often the positive (+) one. The case on a capacitor should also have a negative sign (-) or a dash symbol to indicate which pin is the negative one. The circuit diagram that Frank included in his report has been careful to show these important details on polarity.

Spark Fun website on electrolytic capacitors and proper polarity

One should also note that very often the pins on a chip are numbered in specific sequential pattern, but the circuit diagrams often don’t follow these and simply call out the pin location by number only. I have put the pin diagram for the common 555 timer chip below to illustrate this important distinction between a physical layout and the schematic which doesn’t always match the physical locations.

555 timer chip with the actual pin locations, notice the notch at the top to show where “1” starts

Just to give a little more detail on the mechanical relay that Frank used, I have re-created the pin diagram from the Magnecraft catalog picture showing the layout of the 14 pin connections. You’ll only need four of these connections (2, 6, 8, 14) as seen in Frank’s circuit.

Pin layout for reed switch type of mechanical relay, Magnecraft WR107 DIP-5

Also, a word about the timer delay formula is that it is based on the basic RC circuit type that has an exponential rise relationship once the circuit closes and starts. For simplicity, this formula just assumes a fixed 1.1 ratio to relate the product of the capacitance and resistance value into the predicted time delay in seconds.

Sample calculation of the approximated time delay with capacitor and resistor values converted to seconds

It is important to understand that this is only an approximation and actual experiments are required to be more precise. Each of the lines and connections adds a little bit of variance to the actual delay time you will see and it’s hard to know exactly what this is without testing. Frank’s instructions go into how to do this by first using an adjustable resistor (potentiometer / pot / trim-pot) to measure what resistance you need, then you go get a fixed resistor to install at the end. This way, you can adjust for some of the real-world effects of your connections and verify that your timer will give you the fixed time delay you want. Also remember when buying capacitors and resistors, you will have to buy them in the sizes that are common. Even with the modest precision of these devices (+/-10% on capacitors; +/-5% on resistors), you can still get very close to the time delay you want and these parts aren’t very expensive.

Some people will put in an adjustable resistor in their circuit designs which is fine if the pot can stay tuned on the exact setting you want and you have the access to make adjustments if needed. Typically, you don’t have good access once the payload is installed on the rocket, so this is why this design has chosen to permanently attach a fixed value resistor after some testing to validate the operation.

Lastly, I should make a note on the use of RTV for “potting” or encasing the circuit. Room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) silicone rubber is a liquid compound that usually comes in small tubes and bought in automotive shops (e.g. Autozone) that after it dries will make a rubbery solid. This final step of encasing your circuit in a flexible but firm solid is considered by some to be necessary to secure the timer circuit from deflecting and possibly malfunctioning under the high acceleration experienced in the rocket flight.

Others feel that this step is not necessary. It has also been said that RTV is corrosive to electrical contacts and should not be used. In any case, you must make a structurally robust circuit that stays put, doesn’t break and will protect your connections from accidentally shorting against the interior metallic walls of your rocket parts (if you have them). The high G-loads from a micrograin rocket’s acceleration are not trivial. Proper packaging your payloads is a very important consideration in rocketry.

The method of successfully potting a circuit in RTV is probably worthy of a separate discussion. It is wise to have all of your leads sticking out of the drying potting compound you’re using better it sets otherwise you can’t connect the right parts when the mess is dry. It sounds obvious, but wait until you screw it up?! 😉

Thanks for reading. Look to the RRS.ORG for more articles on different rocketry subjects past, present and future.