September 2019 meeting

by Dave Nordling, Secretary, RRS.ORG


The Reaction Research Society (RRS) met on Friday, September 13, 2019. We had several new people come out to visit including the CSU Long Beach liquid rocket team. They were coming to learn more about the society and our resources at the Mojave Test Area (MTA).

The RRS had a special occasion to celebrate at the meeting which we did with pizza. The RRS now has three new licensed pyro-ops, Osvaldo Tarditti, Larry Hoffing and Dave Nordling. This will help us a lot in holding more events at the MTA.

Abel, Wally, Tustin and Hunter from the CSULB Beach Launch Team, enjoyed our celebration and stayed for the meeting.

Since we had so many new people coming to the meeting, we decided to make introductions and share some of the stories and latest projects before getting to the meeting agenda topics.

Wolfram Blume, new member to the RRS, discussed his plans to static fire a gasoline fueled subsonic ramjet

New RRS member, Wolfram Blume, came to the meeting tonight to discuss his plans to build, test and ultimately fly a gasoline fuel ram-jet called the Gas Guzzler project. He’s been working on this project since 2011 and he presented the RRS president with his test request to conduct a static fire test along with many details of his initial designs. The RRS has not tested a ramjet in many years and this will be a very interesting project as it develops.

Waldo Stakes, RRS member, explains his latest progress with the steam rocket he’s been working.

Waldo Stakes came to the meeting to share with the society his latest progress with a steam rocket he’s been working on for Mad Mike Hughes. Waldo’s projects are always fascinating as he’s worked with a lot of different groups over the years in racing and in rocketry. He’s also been working with Compton College on the planning of their large liquid rocket. The RRS is also glad to be a part of Compton College’s ambitions to build a liquid rocket.

Mario and Oscar of Compton College with RRS member, Kent Schwitkis listen to Bill Behenna present his latest avoinics payload project to be built for the RRS alpha.

RRS member, Kent Schwitkis and a couple of his students from Compton College came to the society meeting. There are many bright students at Compton College interested in working with the RRS and we have already began to assist each student with tasks specific to projects their working at the college.

Bill Behenna shows his latest prototype of an alpha payload to measure acceleration and barometric pressure.

We decided to showcase our membership project first before beginning our agenda which was a very good idea. Bill Behenna has been hard at work on his avionics payload to be built to fly in the many RRS standard alphas we have at most of our launch events.

After calling the meeting to order and the reading of the treasury report, the RRS began our September meeting agenda.

(1) Next Launch Event at the RRS MTA with LAPD CSP and Boyle Heights

The RRS has finished with the last classroom presentation of the series. The students have painted their rockets and are ready for the final launch day, next Saturday, September 21, 2019. After propellant loading, the RRS will be ready to receive our next group to watch their handiwork take flight in the desert.

(2) RRS facility improvements

Osvaldo has been leading the task of evaluating facility improvements to the RRS. The main improvements under consideration are (1) improving our restroom facilities at the MTA and (2) replacing the old blockhouse at the MTA. Osvaldo has made some drawings of the new restroom facilities and is discussing the details with a vendor to get a quote.

In early August, our large adjustable rail launcher was damaged in a failed launch attempt of a large solid motor. Osvaldo began repairs and hopes to have the box rail system restored soon.

The RRS MTA site was also the victim of theft of many things from the George Dosa building. Security at our test site is difficult given its remote location. Several suggestions were made including adding cameras, improving our locks and doors, making opaque window inserts for the building, and simply being present at the site more often. The RRS has been the victim of theft before, but it is something that is never easy to recover.

(3) 2020 Constitutional Committee report

The committee was not able to make their report this month. Several factors have contributed to this delay over the summer. The committee will make its presentation to the society at the next meeting in October.

(4) Society votes on holding the 2020 RRS Symposium

After some discussion last month, the society decided that we will in fact hold the next RRS symposium in the Spring of 2020. Given the increasingly successful events we’ve had since 2017, and the many people who have encouraged us to keep this annual event, the administrative membership voted in favor. Frank Miuccio will again be our symposium coordinator and the RRS will be reaching out to presenters and exhibitors very soon. Our next order of business will be setting the date which is likely to be in the month of April.

(5) RRS to present at the CATIE conference at Antelope Valley College

Dr. Khalil Dajani of CSU Long Beach has invited the RRS to be one of the presenters at the Space Responsiveness Workshop and Exhibit at Antelope Valley College at the Hellenic Center in Lancaster, California. The 2019 California Aerospace Technologies Institute of Excellence will be held on Wednesday, September 18th where members from industry and the government will hear our presentation introducing the society and our capabilities at the Mojave Test Area. We hope to make some great contacts at this event and begin some new partnerships..

https://www.avc.edu/news/2019/Sept/space_responsiveness_workshop

(6) RRS social activities in planning

The RRS has focused a lot on educational and project activities, but we don’t often plan simple gatherings for fun. Larry had talked about having the RRS visit Mt. Wilson as a private group. At the meeting, we also talked about having a simple barbecue at the MTA as was done in times past. We plan to revisit this discussion again. Other members are welcome to share their ideas.

(7) RRS history project – Garboden archives

Lifetime member, George Garboden, has many boxes of papers and reports from the RRS in his possession that he would like to pass back to the society for archival. In support of the RRS history project, the society is always glad to get articles, clippings and any kind of archival materials and make them more available to our membership. Frank, Larry and I have been working on the logistics of getting a new storage location, but the most important step is finding the time to carefully make quality scans.

(8) Social media improvements

Alastair Martin announced the next pending episode of his podcast, Rocket Talk Radio. Other fellow RRS members, Dave Nordling and Richard Garcia, will take part in the next installment of the “Before SpaceX” series on September 28th. In this episode, we will be interviewing Jim French. Jim has had a long and interesting career as a rocket development engineer for the H-1 and F-1 engines at Rocketdyne in the 1950’s and later at TRW in the 1960’s with the Lunar Descent engine during the heyday of Apollo. His book “Firing a Rocket Engine” is available on Amazon.

“Firing a Rocket” by James French

Jim French also worked for a startup company called the American Rocket Company (AMROC) in Camarillo in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s. We hope to have a great conversation and learn a lot about his experiences at this commercial space company.

(9) Memories of George Dosa

As our last order of business, we shared with the society that we lost one of our oldest and most beloved members of our society. In our long history, George Dosa, had a profound impact on the society and many of our past and present members.


The RRS adjourned our meeting after a long series of very interesting discussions. We are thankful to all for coming and we will be holding our next monthly meeting, October 11, 2019. If there are any changes or additions to make to this monthly report, please notify the RRS secretary.

secretary@rrs.org

100 Years Ago: A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes

Dave Nordling, Secretary, Reaction Research Society


The pioneering theoretical and experimental work that formed the basis for the modern practical liquid rocket was published 100 years ago today.

A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes, by Robert Hutchings Goddard (1882-1945), was published by the Smithsonian Institution, on May 26, 1919. Considered the father of American rocketry, Goddard developed the theory of his work while at Princeton University in 1912-1913 with experiments undertaken during 1915-1916 at Clark University.

http://www2.clarku.edu/research/archives/pdf/ext_altitudes.pdf

This 79-page paper described a series of practical experiments using nitrocellulose “smokeless” powder combusted within an enclosed chamber through a de Laval nozzle both in the ambient environment and under vacuum conditions. This paper also included mathematical derivations to develop a theory of rocket action taking in account air resistance and gravity with the goal of determining the minimum initial mass necessary for an ideal rocket to deliver a final mass of one pound to any desired altitude.

In his research, Goddard sought to devise a practical means to send instruments above the range of sounding balloons (about 20 miles) to explore the upper atmosphere. What makes this work fascinating is how much was known at the time of his paper’s publication versus how much was yet to be learned and become common knowledge in our time. Very little was known about the nature of the upper atmosphere in 1919. Yet, the basic concept of a rocket with a restrictive nozzle was known for centuries in the Chinese civilization and later in Europe with the 19th century British Congreve rockets.

In this scientific work, Goddard meticulously lays out his plan of research and the incremental progress he made to verify each of his claims. Most significant is his first conclusion on page 34 that his experiments in air and in vacuum prove that the propulsive force from a rocket is really based on a jet of gas having an extremely high exhaust velocity and is NOT merely an affect of reaction against the air.

Goddard’s work did not receive much funding during his lifetime. His work in rocketry even invited the ignorant criticism of the New York Times and others in the public which had a profound affect on Goddard in his lack of willingness to collaborate even until his death in 1945. In all fairness, it should be noted that the New York Times did see fit to offer an apology to Goddard 24 years after his death and only 50 years ago (in 1969) in the weeks before the Apollo 11 flight that landed the first two men on the moon by a multi-stage rocket operating quite well in the vacuum of space without a media for the vehicle to react against.

Air & Space Magazine, The Misunderstood Professor

by Frank H. Winter, May 2008

https://www.airspacemag.com/space/the-misunderstood-professor-26066829/

Goddard was awarded two patents in 1914, one for a multi-stage rocket and one for a liquid-fuel rocket. Considered an iconic work of 20th century science, all rocketry enthusiasts, students and professionals owe themselves the privilege of reading Dr. Goddard’s 1919 monograph which would lead to the first successful test of a liquid rocket flight in 1923 and the first successful liquid rocket flight on March 16, 1926 in Auburn, Massachusetts.

Goddard’s early discoveries included the determination that fins on a rocket by themselves were not sufficient to stabilize a rocket in flight. Goddard’s inventions included movable vanes to vector the rocket exhaust stream in flight and a gyroscope-based control system to effectively guide a rocket in flight.

Although relatively unappreciated in his home country, Goddard’s work was noticed by the Germans and in years later leading to their own rocket development program leading to the V-2 ballistic missile used to terrifying effect during the latter portion of the Second World War. During the Cold War, the V-2 was the heritage of the first rockets by the first space-faring nations.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_H._Goddard


Oxygen Cleaning: A Validated Process Is Critical For Safety

David Escobar, Director of Engineering at Metso Automation


Industrial oxygen is used for many purposes: in a basic oxygen furnace for making steel, water pollution countermeasures, including sewage treatment, habitability and superfund site rehabilitation, and chemical processes such as production of vinyl chloride, nitric acid, epoxyethane and hydrogen peroxide. It is also used for medical treatment, life support in harsh environments and industrial gasses for welding and other processes.

The production of oxygen has risen from approximately 470 billion cubic feet in 1991 to over 1.5 trillion cubic feet in the U.S. and more than 4 trillion cubic feet globally in 2014.

Oxygen is the most common oxidizing gas and is, of course, highly reactive. When dealing with an oxygen-enriched environment, it is important to control the sources of ignition. Ignition can be caused by many things, among them:

  1. Electrical arcs, which can come from electrical equipment or even static discharge
  2. Friction, which can be generated by the sliding contact of materials within the oxygen-enriched environment
  3. Impact of particles or projectiles internal or external to the enriched environment can generate heat
  4. Resonance, which is vibration-induced heating
  5. Heat of compression (HoC) is the most common cause of explosion due to contamination. Heating is caused by the adiabatic compression of a fluid; this is often called auto-ignition.

Auto-ignition is the phenomenon of spontaneous ignition of a fuel source due to the heat generated by the sudden compression of a gas or HoC. When a valve in a high-pressure or high-velocity oxygen flow is opened or closed quickly, the kinetic energy is converted to increased temperature and potential energy in the form of increased pressure. If the temperature generated by the compression exceeds the temperature needed to ignite non-metallic seals or even the pipe itself, the result is a spontaneously explosion or auto-ignition. When this happens in oxygen systems, the effect can be devastating.

A fire in a process plant

Because the HoC is substantial and can generate thousands of degrees of temperature even at moderate pressure ratios, oxygen systems are designed to limit the pressure drops to control HoC and limit temperature within the autoignition temperatures of the system components.

Thus, it is absolutely essential that contaminants, which can introduce lower auto-ignition temperatures than even the non-metallic seats and seals, be removed from any oxygen system. Any method that achieves the desired cleanliness level is acceptable. CGA 4.4 and the recently issued MSS-SP-138 provide excellent recommendations for cleaning processes.

Oxygen Cleaning A Validated Process is Critical for Safety 2
A technician moves hardware in a clean room using proper protective equipment

CONTAMINANTS TO BE REMOVED

Basically, anything that promotes combustion or impact product purity is considered a contaminant. ASTM G93 categorizes contaminants into three types:

Organics

  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)
  • Hydrocarbon-based greases and oils

Inorganics

  • Nitrates
  • Phosphates
  • Water-based detergents and cutting oils
  • Acids/solvents

Particulate

  • Particles, lint and fibers
  • Dust – Weld slag, etc.

Specifications vary on cleanliness level, methods and validation, and include how much residue is acceptable, what method of cleaning can be used and what kind of inspection must be conducted.

CLEANING METHODS

Mechanical cleaning is used to remove scale, coatings, paint, weld slag and other solid contaminants and can include grit or ice blasting, wire brushing and grinding.

Aqueous cleaning can be with hot water and steam cleaning or alkaline cleaning. Hot water and steam cleaning is effective against water-soluble contaminants, and is normally used with detergent. Alkaline cleaning uses caustic salt in water to create a highly alkaline solution. It is effective against hydrocarbon oils, grease and waxes, and generally is enhanced by agitation and/or jet spraying. Typically this is used for industrial parts washers. This process is greatly enhanced by ultrasonic agitation, but the solvent residue must be removed as well.

Semi-aqueous cleaning uses hydrocarbon solvent and water emulsion, which is effective for removing heavy contaminants from parts like heavy grease wax or hard to remove soils. Emulsion may require agitation to maintain the mixture, and parts must be rinsed before the emulsion can dry. Otherwise, contaminants may re-deposit on the part that was cleaned.

Acid cleaning varies substantially based on the acid used.

  • Hydrochloric acid is used to remove scale, rust and oxides. and to strip platings (chrome, zinc, cadmium, etc.) and other coatings
  • Chromic and nitric acid are used to for passivating, deoxidizing, brightening and removing alkaline residues in addition to cutting oils
  • Phosphoric removes oxides, light rust and fluxes

Acids must be removed completely from the part prior to drying and, depending on the acid strength, may need a neutralizing process.

Solvents can be used without water dilution or emulsion. Alcohol is a common solvent often used to revisit areas of concern identified by black (UV) light inspection. Solvents like alcohol evaporate completely, leaving no residue.

Vapor degreasing is a process in which a solvent is heated until it vaporizes, while the part is maintained at a lower temperature. The solvent then condenses and dissolves contaminants. The part must be oriented so that the condensed solvent can drain from the part by gravity. This method is very effective for inaccessible areas on parts but requires a contained environment for the part during the process.

Any combination of cleaning methods that achieve the desired cleanliness level is acceptable.

INSPECTION METHODS

Visual inspection can be direct, including white light, which is effective in detecting contamination down to 500 mg per square meter. UV (black) light visual inspection identifies contaminants that fluoresce and is effective in detecting contamination down to 40 mg per square meter.

Indirect visual inspection is done in two ways: wipe test and solvent filtering. A wipe test can identify contaminants in locations that have no direct line of sight. Typically, both white light and UV light are used on the wipe cloth, and are effective in detecting contamination down to 30 mg per square meter. Solvent filtering rinses the inaccessible area in solvent, which is then filtered to capture contaminants. The filter is then visually inspected and can detect 100 ml per square foot of low residue solvent and it also uses white and UV light.

Oxygen Cleaning A Validated Process is Critical for Safety 3
White light inspection of cleaned surfaces

Quantitative inspection is done by evaporating the solvent used for cleaning and obtaining the weight of the remaining effluent. Acceptable levels of residue vary according to user requirements.

ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS

Clean room: This provides a designated location where the environment limits dust airborne particles, where clean tools and clean assembly and test equipment can be stored. It can also provide controlled lighting for visual inspections.

Clean test equipment: Pressure test equipment contains contaminants in hoses and pumps. If a test machine cannot be dedicated for clean testing, give special consideration to cleaning of test equipment or alternate testing with clean gas.

Packaging: After cleaning, give specific instructions on how to package the product to preserve cleanliness in shipping and subsequent storage. Consider the role of desiccant as a possible contaminant. Use compatible products or control desiccant to prevent contamination. Consider the addition of actuation and accessories to the valve. Can the actuator be installed and set up without violating the protection? If the protection is compromised, are there procedural steps to identify and remediate any contamination?

SUMMARY

Oxygen cleaning is used to remove contaminants that can significantly reduce the temperature of auto-ignition. There are many methods for doing the actual cleaning. CGA 4.4 and the recently issued MSS-SP-138 provide excellent recommendations, but any method that achieves the desired cleanliness level is acceptable. It is important to know what level of cleanliness your standard process produces. Process validation using a quantitative measurement allows the supplier to have confidence in process quality when using qualitative inspections for production work.


Editor’s Note: The following article was posted on April 20, 2015 in Valve Magazine.com. It is reprinted here for the Reaction Research Society (RRS) with permission from the author and Valve Magazine. The information here is very useful in amateur rocketry and is intended to make our readers aware of the importance of a proper oxygen cleaning process for lines and valves. High purity oxidizers must be handled with care and cleanliness is of paramount importance. The RRS would like to thank David Escobar of Metso Automation and Judy Tibbs, Director of Education at the Valve Manufacturers Association and Editor in Chief of VALVE Magazine.

David Escobar is director of engineering at Metso Automation. Reach him at david.escobar@metso.com.

CGA refers to the Compressed Gas Association. Founded in 1913, the CGA is an organization dedicated to the development and promotion of safety standards in the industrial, medical and food industry. The CGA is comprised of over 110 member companies worldwide working together through the committee system to create technical specifications, safety standards and educational materials; to cooperate with governmental agencies in formulating responsible regulations and standards; and to promote compliance with these regulations and standards in the workplace.

For more information, go to the CGA website:

www.cganet.com

MSS refers to the Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry. Standard practices (SP) documents are available related to many applications including the standardized practice of oxygen cleaning (ANSI/MSS SP-138). ANSI or the American National Standards Institute has adopted the standard for oxygen cleaning of valves and fittings.

https://webstore.ansi.org/Standards/MSS/ANSIMSSSP1382014

ASTM stands for the American Society for Testing and Materials. It is now an international organization known simply as “ASTM International” with its headquarters in West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania. ASTM publishes voluntary consensus technical standards including ASTM G-93 for the Standard Practice for Cleaning Methods and Cleanliness Levels for Material and Equipment Used in Oxygen-Enriched Environments.

For more information, go to the ASTM International website:

astm.org